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구들  |  김준봉  |  사진  |    |  閲?sop=and  |  â€¦Ã¬Â  2017년 12월 18일 월요일
논문투고Presentation Paper论文投稿 > 중문논문/中文论文
   
  Preliminary Study on Heating Facility of Ancient Dwelling area in Southern Region of Korean Peninsular
  글쓴이 : 운아     날짜 : 10-02-12 21:50     조회 : 15310    

Preliminary Study on Heating Facility of Ancient Dwelling area in Southern Region of Korean Peninsular

Kim, Dong-Ryeol
(Master degree course, Department of Architectural Engineering, Graduate School of Chonnam National University) 
Jung, Min-Ho
(Ph.D course, Interdisciplinary Program of Cultural Properties, Graduate School of Chonnam National University)
Cheon, Deuk-Yeom
(Professor, School of Architecture, Chonnam National University)
Yoo, Uoo-Sang
(Professor, School of Architecture, Chonnam National University)

Abstract
Mankind have endured coldness using fire and had been possible to expand the scope of living into cold region. In this study, we have examined about heating facility which are indispensible in human living. We have examined construction location, construction method, construction materials regarding stove, cooking fireplace, partial goodle among heating facilities constructed within dwelling area in southern region of Korean peninsular during ancient time. Study methods were analysis and investigation of 150 reports published by excavation institutions.. 
Key words: Dwelling area, Heating facility, Stove, Cooking fireplace, Partial Goodle(Korean Floor Heating System)


1. Introduction

1-1. Background of study
Mankind could endure cold weather and expand the scope of living into cold area by using fire and also could use various sources as food. In addition, using fire, mankind could create more sophisticated and strong tools such as earthenware, iron ware, and bronze ware. That is, management capability of fire essential for human living was also developed.
Korean peninsular has distinct four seasons and in winter, it is influenced by continental climate and in summer, it is influenced by ocean climate. Under this climate,  heating facility had made more comfortable living in cold winter and had provided space for cooking and had contributed a significant contribution for extending human life. In addition, heating facility had been diversified in its shape and function as time passed and culture developed. In other words, mankind had developed the functions of heating facility in a direction to make more efficient and to maximize further.
In this study, types and construction methods of heating facilities found in ancient dwelling areas in southern region of Korean Peninsula are reviewed. In addition, the impact of heating facility on dwelling space is also examined.

1-2. Scope and method of study
The scope of time for this study is from pre-historic period to the period of three kingdoms and the scope of space is the current south Korean region and stove, cooking fireplace, and Goodle or Korean floor heating system built in residential area were mainly studied. Primarily it was examined centering on 150 reports published by excavation institutions until now.
Origination of ancient heating facility is open land. However, in this study, open land with traces of making fire was excluded as it is lacking to find evidences of artificial fire making in these open lands and the investigation was only limited to stove, cooking fireplace, and Goodle. In addition, in order to investigate places of relics where the above relics structure can be found, 150 excavation reports published until were collected and analyzed. Among these reports,  stove relics structure were excavated and investigated in 7 region, cooking fireplace relics structure in 13 regions, and Goodle relics structure were in 11 regions.
In this study, analysis method of relics structure was primarily in the investigation of location in dwelling area, floor plan, elevation of heating facility and secondarily, construction materials, construction methods, and adhesive materials were investigated.




Regions of stove relics
Regions of Cooking fireplace relics
Regions of Goodle relics
<Table 1> Distribution map of stove, cooking fireplace, Goodle relics structure

2. Characteristics, type, and structure of stove-style heating facility
Forms of stove are generally classified in Tunnel type, laid stone type, side wall style, and non-facility type. Tunnel type and laid stone type were types newly formed during the first half of Iron Age. On the other, side wall type and non-structure type are considered as traditional forms since  Bronze Age. Stove is not only essential facility for heating and cooking within dwelling but also it worked as indoor illumination. In addition, stove means all of brazier/portable cooking stoves and is facility used for cooking, making spinning wheels and also for drying or burning earthenwares.







side wall type
laid stone type
Tunnel type
<Table 2> Type diagram of stove (Reference : Lee, Min-Seok,「Research on furnace facility during Korean ancient period」)


Reports
Region
Period
Location of relics structure
E
W
S
SE
SW
N
NE
NW
C
Kwangju Hangdeung relics
Kwangju metropolitan city
Three kingdoms
3


4

9



Daeji-Ri dwelling areaⅡ
Gyeongnam
Three kingdoms (Gaya)

4







Muan Yangjang-Ri  relics
Jeonnam
Three kingdoms
3
5



8

1

Yeosu Gorak mountain fortressⅡ
Jeonnam
Iron Age






1


Younggwang Gun-Dong relics
Jeonnam
Iron Age
3




2



Youngam Seonhwang-Ri  relics
Jeonnam
Iron Age-Three kingdoms
1
10
1


3


2
Kwangju Oryong-Dong  relics
Jeonnam
Original Three kingdomsOriginal Three kingdoms


2


4



<Table 3> Location of stove relics structure within dwelling area





Muan Yangjang-Ri relics
Kwangju Hyangdeung relics
Yeosu Gorak mountain fortressⅡ
<Table 4> Drawing of dwelling area with stove relics




Stone and clay
Earthen pipe and clay
clay
<Table 5> Classification per construction materials (Reference : Honam cultural assets Research Institute,「Kwangju Hyangdeung relics」) 
Kwangju Hangdeung relics, Daeji-Ri dwelling areaⅡ, Muan Yangjang-Ri relics, Yeosu Gorak mountain fortress relicsⅡ, Younggwang Gun-Dong relics, Youngam Seonhwang-Ri relics, Kwangju Oryong-Dong relics dwelling area stove relics structure were investigated. Within dwelling area, stoves were deployed 10 in east, 19 in west, 3 in south, 26 in north, 4 in south east, 1 in north east, 1 in north west , and 2 in center. All except 2 in center are located in edge region of dwelling area and it was found that they were located the more in northern edge than the southern edge. This may be because lacking of construction technique at that time made heating facility to move to edge region of dwelling area as ability to block outside air coming into wall was poor. And reason for deploying location of stove in northern edge may be because to minimize cold air passes wall in north due to characteristic of climate in Korean peninsular. In addition,  by placing heating facility in edge, they could secure effective space bigger than the case of deploying them in center.
In case of Kwangju Hyangdeung relics, rigid supporters were elected to reinforce walls and were elected at both side walls of the mouth of fire area. As materials of rigid supporter, cases of using stone materials and earthenware were found and there are cases without rigid supporter.
 Rigid supporters of stove can be classified into three kinds according to materials. First, in case of using stone and clay, each piece of stone was elected on both walls to use as rigid supporter when constructing walls of stove. Examples of using stones as rigid supporter are mainly found in regions of Jolla-Do and Gyeonggi-Do and  No. B4 dwelling area of Misari relics is a typical example. In case of using stones, after making basic frame of stove with several pieces of stones, they built wall part by adding clay on top of it but in case of Hangdeung relics, using only one piece of stone on both walls, they had elected as rigid supporter. Second, in case of using earthen pipe and clay, using earthen pipes instead of stones, they had elected rigid supporter. Third, in case of using only clay, without rigid supporter, just by simply using clay, they had built walls and most cases of stove belong to this case. The supports of cooking pots within stove were usually made of stones or lower part of egg-shaped earthenwere.

3. Characteristics, type and structure of cooking fireplace-style heating facility

 A cooking fireplace(Boottoomak in Korean) means jaw built by piling soil and stone on top of fuel hole to hold a pot  The jaw made to hold a pot by piling soil and stone was originated from stoves of dugouts during primitive period. During cultural period of comb teeth pattern earthenware, stoves were built in the center of dugout and surrounding area was mostly built with stone in circle or oval shape. During cultural period of no pattern earthenware, stoves were built in a corner of dugout for easy ventilation of smoke and one side was opened or stones were laid on floor. And in the second part of that period, two stoves were installed in one house for increasing heating efficiency. It is estimated that this kind of stove was developed as similar cooking fireplace to the current one during the period of Goguryeo. In early Goguryeo relics around 1st century BC cooking fireplaces made of iron and ceramic were excavated. Besides, there are several examples of wall paintings of cooking fireplace.





Reports
Region
Period
Location of relics structure
E
W
S
SE
SW
N
NE
NW
C
Gangreung Gangmun-Dong Iron Age·Shilla period dwelling area
Gangwon-Do
Three kingdoms
1





3


Goheung Bangsa relics
Jeonnam
Three kingdoms
1




3
2
1

Goheung Sinyang relics
Jeonnam
Iron Age







1

Goheung Han-Dong relics
Jeonnam
Three kingdoms





3



KwangjuDonglim-Dong relics II
Kwangju metropolitan city
Three kingdoms
7
4

2
1
14
10
33

Naju Bangchuk·Sanging relics
Jeonnam
Three kingdoms
1

1


7



Yongin Suji Baekje dwelling area
Gyeonggi-Do
Three kingdoms
1




1



Iksan Sadeok relics I
Jeonbuk
Three kingdoms
3
3


4
25
24
16

Jeongeub Gwancheong-Ri relics
Jeonbuk
Three kingdoms
1




3



Chuncheon Samcheon-Dong Loop road  section culture relics excavation investigation report
Gangwon-Do
Iron Age- Original Three kingdoms





1



Three kingdoms
1








Hampyeong Banam relics
Jeonnam
Three kingdoms
6
1



1



Hampyeong Seongcheon-Ri Wachon relics
Jeonnam
Three kingdoms





2
3


Kwangyang Chilseong-Ri  relics
Jeonnam
Original Three kingdoms-Three kingdoms
1


1

1



<Table 6> Location of cooking fireplace relics structure within dwelling area

In Gangreung Gangmun-Dong Iron Age․Shilla period dwelling area, Goheung Bangsa relics, Goheung Sinyang relics, KwangjuDonglim-Dong relicsII, Naju Bangchuk․Sanging relics, Yongin Suji Baekjedwelling area, Iksan Sadeok relics, Jeongeub Gwancheong-Ri relics, Chuncheon Samcheon-Dong Loop road Construction site, Hampyeong Banam relics, Hampyeong Seongcheon-Ri Wachon relics, and Kwangyang Chilseong-Ri relics dwelling area, cooking fireplace relics structure was investigated. Cooking fireplace relics were located  23 in east, 8 in west, 1 in south, 61 in north, 3 in south east, 5 in south west, 42 in north east, and 51 in north west within dwelling areas. Unlike stove, cooking relics structure of fireplace was not discovered in central part and all were located in edges of dwelling area. In addition,  it was found out that they were more located in edges of north than edges of south. It is also believed that cooking fireplace is deployed within dwelling areas in similar manner as the same as stove and it may be naturally deployed according to climate elements and aspect of effective spaces.




Chuncheon Samcheon-Dong Loop road section culture relics No. 1 (상) dwelling area
Hampyeong Banam relics No.19 dwelling area
Yongin Suji Baekje dwelling area No.4 dwelling area
<Table 7> Drawings of cooking fireplace relics structure in dwelling area
Cooking fireplace relics during the 1st-3rd century were non-structure type which had no clearly built structures for cooking fireplace, but after the third century, using clay or flagstone, they were built in more sturdy fashion and  changes such as selecting and preferring a certain direction in north took place. Together with this, it is believed that cooking fireplace was also developed with the development of cooking tools. After the 5th century, a new style structure that connected to outside of dwelling area with the addition of smoke pipe to cooking fireplace was also appeared.
A cooking fireplace found in Chuncheon Samcheon-Dong Loop road section culture relics No. 1 dwelling area had split stone walls filled with clay and buried about 1/3-1/4 in red clay soil. The overall plan is not clear due to destruction and loss of the mouth of fireplace but is estimated as rectangle or quadrangle. In addition, smoke path (Width about 22cm and remaining length is 220cm) was a little bit raised as it is far away from the fuel intake with moderate angle slope. Hampyeong Banam relics in No. 19 dwelling area shows that cooking fireplace is located near the center of east wall and top structure is judged as being missed. Under a status of remaining only a part of structure such as fuel hole part, floor of burning part, and wall part, construct  materials was found in clay. And cooking fireplace of No. 4 dwelling area in Yongin Suji Baekje dwelling area was built by attaching clay to large and small split stones. They were standing almost vertically straight up toward east direction in a style of three rows in smoked condition in fire.

4. Characteristics, type and structure of partial Goodle-style heating facility

Currently heating facility used in modern Korean houses are the construction of flue and flue bank in the entire room and is called as Ondol or Goodle, Korean floor heating system. However, among ancient dwelling areas, most of Goodle were only installed in a part within dwelling area. Shin, Young-Hoon had suggested to name this ancient Korean floor heating system as Jjok Goodle or partial Goodle. This is because people can remember easily the connection to Ondol or Korean floor heating system in later period and it also can demonstrate the fact that it is a ‘Jjok’ (partial) heating instead of the entire room. Therefore, in excavation reports, they are recorded simply as Goodle but we call them as partial Goodle in the followings.
The partial Goodle relics structures were investigated in Changwon Gaeum Jeong-Dong relics, Goryeong Jisan-Dong relics within Goryeo Great Gaya history theme tourism place building site , Kimhae Bonghwang-Dong low wetland  relics, Neukdae  Shell mound, Youngcheon Cheongjeong-Ri relics, Jangheung Jicheon-Ri relics, culture relics excavation within Jinan Yongdam dam water burial district investigation reportⅢ, Cheongwon Namseonggok  Goguryeo  relics, Kwangyang Chilseong-Ri  relics, and Seodun-Dong dwelling relics.
Among those relics, the locations of Goodle were 9 in east, 3 in south, 5 in north, 10 in north east, 4 in north west, and 6 in south east within dwelling area. While the relics of stove and cooking fireplace occupied at small and concentrated areas like points, those of partial Goodle were remains in linear shape. The reasons of the location of partial Goodle is less concentrated in north than stove or cooking fireplace are believed that it is because it has linear shape construction which can heat bigger area than stove or cooking fireplace.




Neukdo Shell mound A zone dwelling group No. Na-41
Jangheung Jicheon-Ri  relics Na-zone No. 18 dwelling area
 Goryeong Jisan-Dong relics 1 zone dwelling area No. 18
<Table 8> Floor plans of Goodle relics structure in dwelling area

Reviewing floor plan forms of partial Goodle shows various types such as ‘ㄴ‘ type, ‘T’ type, ‘ㄱ’ type, isolation shape type, and ‘ㅡ’ type. These types of partial Goodle seem to be related to floor plan forms of dwelling area. Partial Goodles in dwelling area with straight line floor plan usually have floor plans emphasizing straight line and partial Goodles in dwelling areas with curvature lines have floor plans emphasizing curve line. Table 10 shows that in circular dwelling areas, partial Goodles in isolation shape type were constructed and ‘T’ type, ‘ㄱ’ type, ‘ㅡ’ type, ‘ㄴ‘ type partial Goodles were constructed in dwelling areas of horse shoe type, direction, rectangular type.
Cross sections of flue of Goodle are identified in ‘ㄱ’ type, ‘ㄇ’ type, and ‘U’ type in case of single line flue and in 'W' type in case of double line Flue. It is believed that formation of flue sections of Goodle is formed by construction materials and the correlation between flue and wall of Goodle. In case of ‘ㄱ’ type flue, one flue bank was constructed with split stones and the opposite side was constructed by Goodle wall or by using clay near Goodle wall. On the other, reviewing construction materials of Goodle bank reveals most ‘ㄱ’ type Goodles were built split stones and clay. Unlike ‘ㄱ’ type, however, ‘ㄇ’ type and 'W' type were constructed with rigid supporter using all split stones. On the contrary, in ‘U’ type, rigid supporter was not constructed instead  it was constructed by digging ground and by laying covering stones.





‘ㄇ’ type Ⅰ
‘ㄇ’ type Ⅱ
‘ㄱ’ type flue
‘U’ type flue
<Table 9> Cross-section diagram of Goodle flue 


Region
Period
Classification No.
Dwelling area floor plan
Goodle
Floor plan
Cross-
section
Flue
Location
Materials
Gyeongnam, Changwon
Bronze Age
Ju-3
Circle type
‘ㄴ‘ type
-
2
NE
․Split stone (Flue)
Gyeongnam, Goryeong
Three kingdoms
Ju-2
Horse shoe  type
‘T’ type
-
-
N
․Split stone (Flue)
Ju-9
Rectangular type
‘T’ type
-
-
E
․Split stone (Flue)
Ju-13
Oval type
‘T’ type
-
-
N
․Split stone (Flue)
Gyeongnam, Kimhae
6-8C
Su-1
Irregular type
‘ㄱ’ type
-
-
E
․Split stone (Flue)
Gyeongnam Sacheon
Bronze Age- Samhan
Ga-11
Circle type
‘ㄱ’ type
‘ㄱ’ type
1
E-S
․Flagstone
Ga-17
Rectangular type
‘ㄱ’ type
‘ㄱ’ type
1
E
․clay+Heating stone
Ga-24
Irregular type
-
‘ㄱ’ type
-
NE
․Yellow fine clay+Heating stone
Ga-50
Horse shoe  type
-
-
1
SE
․Flagstone
Ga-65
Circle type
-
‘ㄇ’ type
1
E
․Red brown clay+supporting stone
Ga-66
Circle type
-
‘ㄇ’ type
-
E
․Flagstone
Ga-72
Circle type
-
‘ㄇ’ type
-
E
․Flagstone
Ga-75
Half circle type
-
‘ㄇ’ type
-
SE
․Flagstone
Ga-78
Circle type
-
‘ㄱ’ type
1
NE
․clay/flagstone
Ga-79
Circle type
-
‘ㄇ’ type
2
E
․clay+flagstone
Ga-93
Oval type
-
‘ㄱ’ type
1
N
․clay/flagstone
Na-5
Oval type
-
‘ㄇ’ type
-
S
․Flagstone
Na-24
Circle type
-
‘ㄇ’ type
-
E
․No-pattern earthenware
 (Cover of Flue)
Na-30
Circle type
Isolation shape type
‘ㄱ’ type
1
N-SE
․clay+ wall stone
Na-35
Circle type
-
-
-
N-E-S
․clay+flagstone
Na-36
Circle type
Isolation shape type
-
-
W-N
․clay/flagstone
Na-38
Circle type
-
-
-
S
․Yellow clay soil+wall stone
Na-39
Circle type
-
-
-
S
․clay (Flue)
Na-41
Circle type
Isolation shape type
‘ㄇ’ type
-
NW
․Yellow clay+ Heating stone
 (Flue)
Na-52
Circle type
Isolation shape type
-
1
SE-S
․Red clay+ Heating stone
Na-64
Rectangular type
-
‘ㄱ’ type
-
SE
․Yellow clay(wall part reinforcement)
Na-65-1
Rectangular type
Isolation shape type
‘ㄱ’ type
1
NE-N
․clay/flagstone
Da-2-3
Track type
-
-
2
NW-S
․Flagstone (Flue)
Da-2-4
Circle type
-
‘ㄱ’ type
1
-
․clay+earthenware piece +flagstone (Flue)
Gyeongbuk Youngcheon
Bronze Age
Su-2
-
‘ㄴ‘ type
-
2
E-W
․Red stone
Three kingdoms
Seok-1
-
-
-

NE
․Split stone
Jeonnam Jangheung
Iron Age
-Three kingdoms
Ju-18
Rectangular type
‘ㅡ’ type
'W' type
2
N
․Flagstone
Ju-20
Rectangular  type
‘ㄱ’ type
‘ㄇ’ type
1
E-NE
․Flagstone
Jeonbuk Jinan
Bronze Age
Ju-B1
-
‘ㄱ’ type
-
-
N-E
․Split stone+Water stone
Ju-B3
-
‘ㄱ’ type
-
-
W/S

Chungbuk Cheongwon
Three kingdoms
Do-118
Diamond shape
-
-
-
-
․Flagstone
Seoul Misari
Original Three kingdoms
Ju-A1
呂 type
‘L’ type
-
-
E
․clay+stone in stream(fuel hole)
․Red clay+stone in stream (Smoke path)
․Wood (Chimney)
Suwon Seodun-Dong
Bronze Age-Iron Age
Ju-7
Rectangular type
-
-
-
E-W
․Rice paddy soil (fuel hole)
․Red clay (Goodle)
Jeonnam Kwangyang
Three kingdoms
Ju-12
Rectangular  type
‘ㄱ’ type
‘U’ type
1
W-NE
․Flagstone
<Table 10> Goodle relics within dwelling area

5. Conclusion

Ancient heating facilities were developed in diversity and sophistication in shapes and functions of furnaces such as stove, cooking fireplace, and partial Goodle for spending cold winter more efficiently.
Types and characteristics of heating facilities can be described through locations of relics structure within dwelling area, floor plans of relics structure, construction methods, and construction materials.
Looking at location of heating facility within dwelling area, in early stage, they were located in center of dwelling area and later they moved to edges of dwelling area. It is believed that it was for securing more effective spaces within dwelling area and to make indoor more comfortable during cold winter. Heating facility moved to edge of indoor space may have played a role to sublimate cold wind blowing through walls.
Next, reviewing floor plans of heating facilities, it was noticed that it was moved gradually from small and concentrated shapes to linear shape. As a typical example of concentrated floor plans, furnace and stove can be counted and as linear floor plans, partial Goodle can be presented. In case of cooking fireplace, it has characteristics of transitional period with the development of smoke path.
Construction methods of heating facility had developed from types without clear structure to types with various structures and the facilities had become bigger and functions were also diversified. Reviewing rigid supporter of relics structures, there were methods to pile split stone into ground or just elected instead of piling. Also instead of split stone, they used clay or even there was a method using no rigid supporter. In addition, its function was to heat indoor in early stage and gradually gained more functions such as cooking. In some relics structures, it was noted that heating function and cooking function were separately constructed indoors.
Finally, reviewing construction materials, in case of rigid supporter, most cases had used split stones and in some cases, used clay. In addition, cases of using clay as adhesive material or as decoration material were also found. And in case of cover stones, it was noted that there were cases of using the same materials as rigid supporter and also there were cases of using earthenware. 



Reference

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