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구들  |  김준봉  |  사진  |    |  閲?sop=and  |  â€¦Ã¬Â  2017년 12월 18일 월요일
논문투고Presentation Paper论文投稿 > 중문논문/中文论文
   
  The History and Characteristics of Korean Traditional Ondol studied through Document Analysis
  글쓴이 : 최고관리자     날짜 : 08-06-06 19:41     조회 : 23232    
The History and Characteristics of Korean Traditional Ondol studied through Document Analysis

June Bong Kim    Sang Kyu Jeong

Abstract

Human race has used various heating methods, since fire was founded in the world. It is very important work to trace the history of Ondol, which originated and was developed in the Korean peninsula. Especially, the study on ancient Ondol would contribute to improving the present heating methods and predicting the future ones. In this paper, we shall study through the anaylsis of documents such as oriental ancient documents, the document of Choseon dynasty, Europe documents and American documents. In order to discover the origins of Ondol as the almost excellent heating method all over the world, This study aims at identifying the history of Ondol and characteristics in the Korean peninsula, through document analysis.
Results of this study are as follows.
1) The first record about Ondol is related to Ondol at Kwankyesa in the border land between Gogooryo and northeast China.
2) Ondol built in the period of Balhae dynasty had single flue(Hanjool Gorae) and double flue(Doojool Gorae).
3) The overspreading of Ondol made the quality of Ondol poor in the last of Choseon dynasty.
4) If the layout of Bulmok were poor, it may cause the backflow of fire.
5) Korean Ondol have been used as heating method for long time and the period is longer than the west.

Keywords: Ondol, Korean peninsula, heating method, document analysis


1. Introduction

1.1 The Background of study
  Inheritance, which has been developed and took over  for thousands of years, includes critical and essential contents for contributing to human civilization. Therefore, Researching history and characteristics of Ondol, as valuable inheritance, helps human race improve a culture and a scientific technique. Human race has used various heating methods, since fire was founded in the world. In the view of which Ondol has to be develop as the most excellent heating system in the world, It is very important work to trace the history of Ondol, which originated and was developed in the Korean peninsula.

1.2 The scope and purpose of study
The study on ancient Ondol would contribute to improving the present heating methods and predicting the future ones. In this paper, we shall study through the anaylsis of documents such as oriental ancient documents, the document of Choseon dynasty, Europe documents and American documents. In order to discover the origins of Ondol as the almost excellent heating method all over the world, This study aims at identifying the history and characteristics of Ondol in the Korean peninsula, through document analysis.
 
2. The analysis of ancient document
 The first document related to Ondol is Sookyongjoo(水經注), Chinese ancient geography book written by Ryodowon in 6th Centry(A.D. 500~513).  The 14th volume of  the books, Pogusoojo(鮑丘水條), includes the description related to the form and principle of Ondol at Kwankyesa(觀鷄寺) temple where was located at the border land between Gogooryo(ancient Korea) and northeast China. The contents of the documents are as follows.

“ There are flues made from stones which are lined up, under floor whose upper surface is coated with mud. the flues look like branches and connect 4 fire holes outside of a room. Whenever a fire is made in the firehole, all rooms become warm…"
(下悉結石爲之 上加塗墍其內疏通 枝經詠散 其側室外四出爨火 炎熱內流 一堂盡溫...) “

  According to 'Chilbul Sunwon Sajukgi'(七佛禪院史蹟記), Zen master, Tamgong built room shaped like ‘亞’(Ajabang) with Ondol at Chilbulsa temple in the period of the Silla Kingdom.
 It was named Ajabang because the shape of its floor plan is very similar to the Chinese ideograph "Ah(亞)".
 The room with Ondol has different two floor levels. the floor of low level of them shapes as "亞".
  Ajabang was burned down in 1951. So it was rebuilt as it is now.(Figure 1, 2)

 Figure 1. Ajabang, room shaped like ‘亞’ with Ondol in Chilbulsa temple



 Figure 2. Flue(Gorae) of room shaped like ‘亞’ with Ondol in Chilbulsa temple


It is written in ‘the story of Goryo’ chapter of Gudangseo(舊唐書) written after about 100 years(7th Centry) than Sookyongjoo, the history book of Tang(old  China), that Goryo people made long Kang(長坑) and got a fire going under the Kang(坑) in winter. Chinese Kang(坑) has a firehole inside a house.(Figure 3)
 
Figure 3. Chinese Kang(坑)


 Kang(坑) is similar to Ondol but the structure is different. Korean tradinal Oondol has a firehole(Agungii) inside a house and the flue(Gorae) is long.(Figure 4)

Figure 4. The structure of Korean traditional Ondol


Bohanjip(補閑集), written by Choi Ja(1181~1260) is the oldest document about Ondol(Gudle), existing in Korea. It is written in the Bohanjip as follows.

"Someone quickly made a fire with firewood and then made Ondol warm…an ommission... stoped up a fire hole with small stones and filled the crack with plaster…"
(急爇紫頭溫其堗而去......塡堗口泥其灰塗隙而上....)

The 1st volume of Samkukyusa (Overlooked historical records of the three kingdoms) includes contents about the Ondol in  Balhae Kingdom. It is written in the Samkukyusa as follows.

“ There are 3 rooms where are located at center on terrace of earth.. They have Ondol. One of them, where is located at north area, has only single flue(Hanjool Gorae) and the others have double flue(Doojool Gorae).
 The area of  Ondol is 1/3times as small as the area of room. The  thickness of flue is about 30cm(1尺) and the thickness of flooring is about 9cm(3寸). The flue of eastern room connects with the one of northern. So does the flue of western room.
  Each flue connects with a smokestack, whose  section shape is rectangle. The size of the section of smokestack is 810cm(27尺) x 810cm(27尺)…”


Age
Period
Document
Major content
unidentified
Silla dynasty
七佛禪院史蹟記
(Chilbul Sunwon
 Sajukgi)
room shaped like ‘亞’ with Ondol
The early 6c
North Wee China
水經注
(Sookyongjoo)
The form of Ondol 
at “Kwankyesa” temple
The early 7c
Tang China
舊唐書
(document of Old Tang)
A record related to Ondol in Goryo dynasty
A,D. 1254
(13c)
Goreyo dynasty
補閑集(Bohanjip)
the first record related to Ondol in korea
A.D. 1281
(13c)
Goreyo dynasty
三國遺事
(Overlooked historical records of the three kingdoms)
Introduction  to
the Ondol of Balhae kingdom
Table 2. the ancient documents written about Ondol


3. THE ANALYSIS OF THE DOCUMENS OF CHOSEON DYNASTY 

The period of prosperity of Choseon dynasty was the period of King Yeongjo and King Jeongjo. Yi Ik(1681~1763) wrote ‘Songho Sasol’ during King Yeongjo. Yi Ik blamed overspreading of Ondol as follows in his book, ‘Songho Sasol’ (星湖僿說).

“ Even the biggest houses don’t have Ondol in Chong China. Chinese old men live long in the houses with a wooden floor, without Ondol. But, in case of our nation(Choseon), many peoples often get sick because they lived in house with Ondol and became lazy. 100 years ago, There were only about two rooms with Ondol in the royal palace and general houses included Ondol only  for old men and patients.”

Figure 5. Songho Sasol by written Yi Ik


  The overspreading of Ondol caused that Poor people built roughly Ondol. Because of low thermal efficiency, poor Ondol consumed too many firetrees. So it made green moutain naked and caused many social problem. 
  Imwon Gyongjeji(林園經濟志) written by Seo Yuku(1764~1845) in the last period of Choseon dynasty is a unique book of documents existing in Korea, circumstantiated  housing , landscape architecture and so on.
  According to contents of 'Imwon Gyongeji', National power of Choseon was gradually decaying from 18C to 19C and the people of Choseon was becoming poor. So the culture of Choseon followed Chinese culture as best example. At the same time, Traditional culture about Ondol was disappearing and falling off in Korean peninsula.

Figure 6. Imwon Gyongjeji by written Seo Yuku


‘Keumwha Kyongdockgi’(金華耕讀記) written by Seo Yuku includes contents about a cooking fire place(Figure 7) as follows.
 "Ancestors dealt with importantly a cooking fire place, where even was used as the altar. But recently, it has been roughly made without rigid construction skills, so the backflow of fire arises from a crack formed by dryness of mud and a cauldron is inclined or the cooking fire place would break down by falling off the gravels and crushed roofing tiles. an insect live in that place or a mouse makes hole because it wasn’t paved with bricks and it was roughly plastered with mud in front of the fire hole.
 Therefore, the cooking fire place should be made into bricks and the surface should be thickly plastered with a specific material called as ‘Bopjehoiny (法製灰泥)’ and be coated with an oil to prevent crack."



Figure 7. a cooking fire place called as "Budumak" in Korea

  Hong Manseon(1643~1715) introduced how to prevent an insect’s access to a cooking fire place in his writing, ‘Salimkyongje’(山林經濟). The solution is paving the bottom of a cooking fire place with a material mixed of lime and mud together.
‘Somoon Sasol’(瑄聞事說) written by Yi Pyo includes drawings and detail construction methods of Ondol. But the structural level of Ondol was very lower than Ondol shaped like ‘亞’ in Silla dynasty. Drawings of the Ondol show the structure of scattered type, 'Heoteun Gorae'(Figure 8), in Somoon Sasol.  The drawings in 'Somoon Sasol' exclude not only Ondol shaped like ‘亞’ but also Ondol of line type, 'Jool Gorae'.(Figure 9)
These show that Ondol became poor in the last of Choseon dynasty.

Figure 8. scattered type (Heoteun Gorae)

Figure 9. line type (Jool Gorae)

 
  Park Chiwon(1737~1805) pointed out 6 faults of poor Ondol – which is used by not rich men ‐ as follows in his writing, ‘Yeolha Ilgi’

① A stone slab could sink because some of stone props under floor are too small and weak.
② Rooms don’t become equally warm because a stone slab doesn’t have uniform thickness.
③ It is hard to connect flames together, because the height of a stone prop is high and the section of a flue is too big.
④ Because of a gap of wall, the backflow of fire hole could arise at a fire hole and rooms could be filled with smog.
⑤ fire can't go far and deeply because it is hard for fire to go over cross 'Bullmock'.
⑥ In order to dry a wet room, too many firewoods are needed.

Besides, Park Chiwon added 6 elucidations to these problems as follows.
① The poor Ondol may cause waste of firewood.
② The waste of firewood may cause reduction of big tree as useful resources.
③ The reduction of trees in mountain may cause a landside which would cover paddy fields and dry fields.
④ The lack of firewood may cause a breach of propriety toward senior ‐ because one man may stay in the main room and his mother and wife may stay together in the same room.
⑤ If insects and mice make holes in Ondol, a fire may take place and the house could be burnt down.
⑥ Poor men don’t use laminated paper to cover the floor of Ondol because the paper is too expensive.

Figure 10. Section of Ondol
 
 
Document
Author
Major content
Songho Sasol
Yi, Ik
Deploring the too big increment of  housing with Ondol
Imwon Gyongjeji
Seo, Yuku
Following an example of Chinese form in architecture of Choseon
Keumwha
Kyongdockgi
Seo, Yuku
Construction method of a cookinf fireplace
/ Introduction to Chinese Kang
Yeolha Ilgi
Park, Chiwon
Faults of Ondol
/ Introduction to Chinese Kang
Salimkyongje
Hong, Manseon
Construction methods and materials of a cooking fireplace
Somoon Sasol
Yi, Pyo
Drawings and construction methods of Ondol
Table 2. the documents written about Ondol in Chosen dynasty


4. THE ANALYSIS OF THE EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN DOCUMENS 

  It is introduced as follows in the Documens about Ondol, written by Westerners. Witsen Nicolaes(1641‐1717) who was a native of Holland, published ‘Tartaria(North Asia) at Moscow in 1667. It is written in the book that flues with depth of about 1/2feet under floor made room warm.
Dallet, French Catholic missionary, arranged history of Korean Catholic Church from 1593 to 1871
He wrote ‘Histoire de I’Englise de Coree’. It is written in the book that peoples in Choseon have used heating method for long time and the period is longer than the west.
Willam.E.Griffis, American minister, wrote ‘Corea, the hermit nation’ in 1882. It is written in the book that houses have the Flue called as ‘Gorae’ in Northeast Asia and the the flue bakes Human as to bake potato. the book describes that Ondol is similar to the western bed made into bricks, with a fireplace.

Figure 11. 'Corea, The Hermit Nation' written by W.E. Griffis



Nation
Age
Document
Author
Holland
1667
Tartaria(North Asia)
Witsen Nicolaes
France
19c
Histoire de I'Englise de Coree
Dallet
America
1882
The Hermit Nation
W.E. Griffis
Table 3. the documents written about Ondol in Europe and America


5. The others
  Hujita Ryosack(1931) who is Japanese, contributed  an article  to ‘Cheongku Hakchong (靑丘學叢)’.  He reported that  the remains of Ondol was excavated at the same time the relics of new stone age, at Songpyongdong  ,Woongki county in North Hamgyong Province and the structure of the Ondol  was  very similar to  modern one  with  flooring that whole floor can become warm.
6. conclusion
 This study surveys the history and Characteristics of Korean tradional Ondol through document analysis. this study are summarized as follows.
1) The first record about Ondol in documents is related to  Ondol in Kwankyesa(觀鷄寺) temple where was located at the border land between Gogooryo(ancient Korea) and northeast China.
2) Ondol built in the period of Balhae dynasty had single flue(Hanjool Gorae) and double flue(Doojool Gorae).
3) The culture of Ondol had been widely spreded from acient times to the period of Choseon dynasty in Korean peninsula, even poor men used the Ondol. But the overspreading of Ondol made the quality of Ondol poor in the last of Choseon dynasty.
4) If the layout of Bulmok(Figure 10) were poor, it may cause  the backflow of fire.
5) Korean Ondol have been used as heating method for long time and the period is longer than the west.

REFERENCES

Ju, Namchol (1981) “Korean Housing” Seoul: Ilji co.
Ju, Namchol(1988)  “A Consideration of  Ondol  & a cooking fireplace“ Deajon: Cutural Heritage Administration
Kim, Namung(2000) “A Study on the Hypocaustum‐Form of the Western Ancient Floor‐Heating System Hypocaust” Seoul: Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea, Vol. 16, No. 11 pp 171~178
Kim, Namung(2004) “A Story of Korean Floor Heating System, Goodl(Ondol) through Literature and Relics” Seoul: Dankook University Press.
Kim, Namung Jang Jaewon Lim Jintaek (2005) “A Study on the Frank Lloyd Wright's Experience with the Korean Traditional Floor Heating System Ondol, Its Application Process in His Architectural Works and Meanings” Seoul: Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea, Vol. 21, No. 9 pp 155~166
Kim, Junebong & Rhee, Shinho (2006) “Ondol a Brilliant Culture of Gudle” Seoul: Chunghong
Kim, Junebong & Yoo, Uoosang (2007) “A Study on the Characteristics of Ondol found in Folk Housing of Several Peoples in Northeast China” Seoul: International Journal of Ondol Vol.20, No.1 pp 32-40
Kim, Sungwan(1994) “Ondol and the characteristics of Korean’s thermal sensation”, Korea National Housing Corporation 
Lee, Gyutae (2000) “Korean’s Housing Culture” Seoul: Shinwon Press.
Rhee, Shinho (1998), “Korean culture related to  heating a room” The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers.
Shin, Yeonghoon (1989) “Modeling of Korean Housing” Seoul: Daewon co.
Song, Kiho (2006) “Ancient Ondol in Korea” Seoul: Seoul National University Press.
Griffis, Willam. E.(1882) "Corea: The Hermit Nation" New York: Charles Scribner's

   

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