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구들  |  김준봉  |  사진  |    |  閲?sop=and  |  â€¦Ã¬Â  2017년 12월 18일 월요일
논문투고Presentation Paper论文投稿 > 중문논문/中文论文
   
  A study on the Ondol ( Radiant Floor Heating System) through out healthcare perspective.
  글쓴이 : 최고관리자     날짜 : 08-06-04 08:13     조회 : 19230    
A study on the Ondol ( Radiant Floor Heating System) through out healthcare perspective.

Kim june bong[1] Prof. Ph. D. Beijing university of technology, President of International Society of Ondol.










Introduction 

The Gudle, an equivalent name for Ondol, has been adapted to most of Korean's lifestyle as the main heating system for their houses. Regardless of seasons, they are living on the Ondol which seemingly to the health and the wellness of inhabitants. Most of studies of the Ondol have been focused on its functional properties as of heating system, but here we've tried to investigate the Ondol as the infrastructure of culture and healthcare influencing everyday life and its region of coziness




Survey on the previous studies




Prof. Miwura (dept. of hygiene research at Manju medical school) published "A study on the climate and the hygiene under a blanket". He asserted the significance of sleep, which comprises a big portion of human life, and the climate under a blanket by comparing the warmness of the under-blanket-climate with the condition of heating and no-heating. Especially for the territories having harsh cold winter, the combination of usage of the bed, the Tatami, and the Gudle, etc is important to get the best hygiene condition under a blanket. .4)

The design of experiments has following variables for comparison: using or not using heating source, being on or off the bed, opening or closing the window. The study revealed out that the Tatami gave the least comfortable night sleep in severe cold winter region, since heat flows upward and the under-blanket-climate on the Tatami had been observed as less warmth and high humidity. On the contrary, the Ondol - or the Gudle - was assessed as the most efficient way to maintain suitable condition for the night time sleep because it radiates heat flows from the surface of the Ondol and eventually raises the temperature inside a blanket.5)

The Ondol, on top of its heating function, has been regarded as a remedy utility for a long time. History shows King Gwanghaegun in Chosun dynasty cured his tumor at the soil-filled-floor in his palace. Also in Chosun dynasty, Guwhangchalyo published in King Sejong's reign describes "Hot Gudle is good for intervention of illness..." In the Royal record of Chosun dynasty shows "In June, King Sejong's 12th year, the King ordered the Gyeongsang provincial minister to let the brother Lee stay at the Ondol to prevent illness."

Other historical cases support the healthcare attributed to Ondol. King Sejong himself also had been stayed at the Gudle flatted hay-roof house in his palace to overcome exceed humidity. Dongyibogam also identifies the effectiveness of the Ondol for curing illness. the Ondol heats the floor surface first and its surrounding air. People sit on the floor or lay down on it, and the temperature of both floor and room air can keep pleasant condition of the inhabitants.

Having sufficient time of sleep is very important to sustain healthy condition so the sleeping method and heating scheme is crucial for our life. Among lots of life styles , the Ondol gives the best sleeping environment and effectiveness for the wellness of our life. Korean traditional wisdom suggests just-delivered mothers to be stayed at hot the Goodle unless they are supposed to be suffered from the tumors and paralysis. But in some western world, they bath with cold water after delivering a baby. What a comparison! Our research on the Ondol from healthcare perspective will give us more implications.

 

Summary: "A survey of the hygiene circumstances about the concurrent Goodle and Ondol" done by Hyeon, Gyu-Ahm




Hyeon, Gyu-Ahm had carried out a survey of 17 cases of the Ondol around the Korea from Jan.04th,1940 to mid Jan, 1944. In January 1942, he investigated 41 cases of the Gudle in Feiniudun.

1. One instance at Feiniudun showed the maximum room temperature (max RT) is 17(the unit of temperature is degree of Celsius), the minimum 9.5 below zero, and the average 10. The turbulence of the room temperature was dependent on the social status. The upper class had the difference of max and min as of 8 (max 14, min 6), and the lower as of 29 (max 17, min -3). The room temperature got the peak 7 hours after heating, showed 16.4 difference from outdoor, average humidity 68%, insignificant temperature change against indoor altitude, less than 1




2. The surface temperature(ST) of the Gudle: max around inlet 33.5, middle 25.8, far edge 22.8. The temperature around inlet arrived at its peak 3 hours after heating, and 5 hours for middle and far edge. The average defense of temperature between the surface and room air is around 17.5 and after 3 to 5 hours of heating the difference got its max.

3. The survey of the Ondol at 17 household in Chosun showed max RT 19.3, min 6.6, average 13.2 and they are slightly higher than that of Manjuria. Two households revealed out its max difference between RT and outdoor was 19.1 after 4 to 5 hours of heating. Average humidity 49% but settled around 40% after several hours of heating and unlikely with the Gudle, the room always give dried-up feeling. Height difference is under 1 degree and same as the Gudle.

4. The ST of Ondol: max around 34.6, middle 31.7, far edge 20.3. average 28.9. The temperature around inlet arrived at its peak 5 to 6 hours after heating, middle 4, and far edge. The surface thickness, lasting time of combustion, and heat radiation determined those variables. The firing place of the Ondol is smaller than the one of the Gudle, and without soil-filled space, the ST and RT of the Ondol are a bit higher than those of the Gudle. The difference between ST and RT of the Ondol is 15.8.

5. An investigation for the room air pollution of three households at Feiniudun showed min. CO2 contamination was around 1%. After cooking, it rose around 2% at the Gudle, but less than 1.1% at Ondol, letting the fume out of the room through the open inlet of the Gudle.

6. Altitudal change of RT was around 1 degree, ST is around 30 degrees, and usually people had a custom of laying down to maintain his/her body as of "hotter bottom cooler top". The difference of RT to height was around 20 degree when using Russian pechka on the condition that the RT at one meter height had been maintained 21 degree which was little less warm than using the Ondol or the Gudle. The case of using heat steam or stove was more or less same as Russian pechka. In brief, floor heating by the Ondol or the Gudle had shown advantages against other alternatives.

 

About the region of coziness using the Gudle




the Gudle and the Ondol heat directly the floor on which people can seat and lay down. Comfort of the people is affected by both RT and ST. The region of coziness(RoC) also can be maintained by exploiting the combination of RT & ST. 

There are lots of previous studies on the RoC, but lack of studies in the case of the Ondol and the Gudle which are traditional & pervasive heating system for ethnic Korean and Manjurian. Direct heating to the floor affects desk leg, chair leg, and bed surface which are contacting object to human body. We've selected the contact area of object on the Gudle & the Ondol to human body as of key parameter to the RoC, and the effects to people's various postures.

The ST of the Ondol & the Gudle, as imagined, is one of key parameters to the RoC. The combination of ST as well as room temperature & humidity, or effective RT. Colder STof the Gudle needs warmer RT, and hotter ST needs cooler RT.

Using forehead temperature as a sole index for RoC is not suitable considering the ST, when we need to take care of the lower body.

When seating on a chair, the contact area of body to the surface of the Gudle is minimal, so the effects of RT is larger than the ST of the Gudle.

In summary, the Gudle heating system determines its RoC by the combination of ST, RT, and room humidity (or effect RT). Laying down on the surface of the Gudle is the posture being affected by the ST most significantly and the posture of 호좌위 is also affected by the ST, and the RoC when seating on a chair is mainly affected the RT and humidity. 6)

 

1. Relationship between people and the Gudle 




Koreans have a custom to take off their shoes when sleeping, even the drunken laying down on the road are often found whose shoes are taken off. So keeping cleanness of the surface of the Gudle is engraved in Korean custom.

the Gudle heats floor and the heat energy transfers evenly in the room via the air circulation from the floor. Long wavelength infra-red rays are radiated from the stone and soils, which are main component of the Gudle, and it gives positive healthcare environment by invigorating the cells of human body. the Gudle can be regarded as an environmental friendly and healthy organic farm analogically against the barren field with chemical fertilizer. 

In natural environment, water particles -found at rain drops, tidal foam, and washing shower - are polarized with electron which has the property of holding positively charged dust or contaminated substances. The negatively ionized water particle makes the air clean. The negatively charged ion and the long wavelength infra-red rays can be taken as natural vitamin. 

In 1979, a German architect P. Kushe firstly used the term "ecological architecture (Okokogishes Bauen)" and it has become a buzzword. Sustaining ecological balance is the utmost significance to keep living creatures alive. The concept of "ecological architecture" is devising and applying eco-friendly ideas into the all stages along with the whole path of the implementation of the architecture. It supposes the unity of ecology, environment, and architecture. That is, the architectural behavior is to keep balancing with nature and enhancing the healthy environment by trying to maximize the followings: usage of natural materials, non-polluting materials, natural energy sources, and the recyclability of the architecture.

The ecological wellness is most important to human being just like the healthcare is most important issue to individual. We're on the stage of harassment of natural resources much over the appropriate development of it. We need to get back to ecological balance.

 

2. Modern housing and "New house syndrome"




Current housing building gets quick using the concrete and lots of chemical composites which emit hazardous substances, so called "environmental hormones". The inhabitants are affected by "environmental hormones", especially children are more fragile in respiratory and dermatologic illness from the lack of humidity controllability in modern concrete housing.

"New house syndrome" has been a buzzword recently but already found lots of cases. The college of healthcare in Texas state university has found out that the density of formaldehyde indoor is 0.069ppm and outdoor is 0.022ppm, and the emission from less than 2 year old houses are three times more than those of 15+ year old houses. The formaldehyde is known to trigger dizziness, vomit, infertility, chronic headache, allergic disease, cancer and so forth.

Modern housing doesn't seem to have advantages against traditional soil & stone filled Gudle. the Gudle also had given a good remedy for treating the people who catched cold: just lay down on the Gudle and sleep under blanket. sweating a lot, and could easily got over the cold. Some oriental medical recipe reads seating straight on the hot the Gudle covering the legs with blanket and opening the windows letting freshly cold air inside heals the catch-cold-patient with sweating.

Uncomfortableness of stomach and digest problem could be efficiently removed by laying down with belly down upon the hot surface of the Gudle. Neuralgia, arthritis, back pain, and tumor also had been eliminated just by laying down on the hot surface of the Gudle. Effective control of humidity by the Gudle had given no problematic source of dermatologic disease.

The bedroom in the monder house being a mixture of concrete and chemical seems to be more isolated. We'd better adopt traditional way of using the surface of the Gudle except for the elders and patients having trouble to laying down.

Thick blanket on bed seems to be not so effective to maintain warmth. No floor radiated heating system resulted in stronger air heater or water steamer. To feel warmth from the surrounding air, the blanket should be thin, and the warmer the air, the drier the air.




3. The basic principle of Ondol: "Warm head, cold feet" and "Water upward, fire downward"




Standing on the Gudle makes you feel comfortable warmth at your feet. It helps blood circulation and gives refreshment because of the increased rate of "the reflection of blood vessel". Good refreshment triggers the human brain to produce endorphin and dopamine which enforce the human body's immunity and support to maintain healthy condition of body. Long wavelength infra red rays emitted from the Gudle also prevents endo-varginal or obstetric diseases.

The radiant heat from the Gudle doesn't affect humidity and makes no need to have artificial humidifier, also reduces the moving of dust and acrid via air flow so that especially good for asthma patient.

Using the Gudle, the altitudal change of temperature is negligible, less than 1 degree, and the ST is around 30 degree which comprises a proper condition of living place. "Warm head, cold feet" makes most ideal condition for keeping healthy body. Oriental wisdom reads "Water upward, fire downward” that invigorate vitality. 

the Ondol doesn't produce ash or dust so that gives good condition for respiratory patient and recently some European hospitals adopt the Gudle for the their intensive care unit



4. Korean Ondol and architectural culture

 

"The Ondol (the Gudle)" gives an image of a tiled roof house or a thatched cottage, a bit old-fashioned portrait. The Royal record of Chosun dynasty described a chief carpenter as of "Daemok" whose literal meaning is a "Big Carpenter" and since the middle of 17th century they were called as of "Dophyeonsu" or "Dobyeonsu" in the public office. Meanwhile, a chief master of the Gudle was separately called as of "Ondolphyeonsu" or "Ondolbyeonsu" which seemingly emphasized Ondol's functionality.

The Gudle was regarded as an underground structure. On top of its function as of heating system, the Korean ancestors acknowledged that it also affects the lifetime of the architecture, so they assigned "Ondolphyeonsu" to manage of Ondol. But nowadays the Gudle has been regarded as an partial addendum of an architecture and only being focused of its heating functionality. 

Korean lifestyle has been rooted from the Gudle. The invisibility of a root cannot justify the disregard of the root. The design of the Gudle need to be firmly established from the beginning only by which we can achieve the maximum utilization of heat source and prolonging the life time of the architecture. To settle down the Gudle around the finishing stage of the house building is non-sense. It's like building basement after completing a house.

Regardless of its architectural type, a "Hanok (Korean traditional housing)" or a log house, there's not enough explanation of the fundamental structure of a building. Making ground work with coarse fundamentals and quick start building. An indelicate fundamental structure has weak point for the permeating moisture and it gets rid of the heat energy of the Goodle which entails more frequent firing and results in shortening life time of the Goodle. Penetrated moisture puncture wellness.

The most comfortable ST is 32 degree. Covering a blanket raises the temperature upto 50 degree inside. A blanket works a heat shield and container. Inside a sheet on a bed can not reach to 20 degree. There needs heating utility like electrically heated stone bed. Nowadays people install beds on the Gudle and they think it's more modernized way of sleep. Beds on the Gudle is not suitable and looks like wearing western suit with straw shoes, one of Korean traditional shoes. Making the Gudle with the toxic cement and concrete can be regarded as making Hanbok (the Korean traditional clothes) with plastic.

Korean ancestors set the height of ceiling as of the height of seating plus that of standing. Just to show off his or her majesty, the palaces were needed to have elevated ceiling like the lobby floor of the concurrent big architectures.

Nourishing the human body through food may be most important to keep it healthy, also to inhale fresh air and good substances such as phytoncide of forest cannot be neglected. The long wavelength infra red rays from the Gudle adds more coziness and the sense of happiness. There's some specially forged Gudle which provides containing space for holding medical or pharmaceutical stuffs to fortify the body. 

The "Heating shock", sometimes resulted in a death, caused by an abrupt difference of temperature between outdoor and indoor can be found in western style heating system. But using the Gudle, the "Heating shock" cannot be arose. One thirds of human life is comprised with sleep, and the space with the Gudle is very important.

Conclusion: The the Ondol implies above the heating system. It is the way of healthcare lifestyle, tradition, and culture.

The Ondol is not only for heating purpose but also for increasing the coziness through direct contact of the surface of the Ondol. 

Healthcare science interprets the direct contact of heating source is good for blood circulation and maintaining healthy condition than the western style of heating. When sleeping on the Ondol covered with a blanket, heat energy is supplied into the body through the direct contact of the Ondol rather than body heat. The Ondol gives overall effects to the temperature of human body not like the bed and the Tatami. Lower RT in the Ondol gives much less turbulence of the coziness of sleep than any other alternatives of heating. 

The Ondol is the cultural basis of the Korean and reflects oriental medical thought of "Warm head, cold feet". It has been developed from the seating-on-the-floor lifestyle and need to be researched continually. The attributes of the Ondol in view of healthcare and culture need to be studied further.

Scientific advancement has lead substantial changes of heating energy for the Ondol. Originally firewood had been used for the Ondol, and now fossil fuel and electricity are taking charge of it. The restriction of limited energy resource will prolong the life time of the Goodle and good for energy saving.

The Goodle gives more comfortable living space, is good for maintaining vital rhythm in better condition, and gives better hygiene effectiveness. In summary, the Ondol maximize the coziness of living space and does significant roles to sustain mental, emotional, and physical stability. We hope much more studies are pursued in the future.

 

References 




1.  Refer to Lim, Gye Soon, History of Ching Dynasty Ruled by Manchurians, Shinsiwon, 2000

2. Kim, June-Bong, Rhee, Shin-Ho "Ondol, A Brilliant Culture of Gudle", Chunghong, 2006

3. Kim, Jung-Bong, Kim, Sung-Woo, Park, Eun-Jung, Lee, Hoon, The Characteristics of Korean Folk Housing in Yenbien, China, Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea, Vol.16, No.7, 2000

4. Kim, Si-Jun, Culture and History of Korean Peninsula and Three Provinces in Northeast China, Seoul National University Press, 1999

6. Kim, Jung-Bong, The Characteristics of the House Plan Types of Korean Chinese in North-East China, Ph.D Thesis, Chungbuk National University, 2000

7. Kim, Byung Ho, China's Ethnic Problem and Korean Chinese, Hansunghakkobang, 1997

8. Lim, Gye Soon, History of Ching Dynasty Ruled by Manchurians, Shinsiwon, 2000

9. Kim, June-Bong, Baek, Suk-Jong, The Regional Characteristics of the House Plan Types of Korean Chinese in North-East China, Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea, Vol.17, No.2, 2001

10. Kim, Junebong, A Survey on the Characteristics of Korean Chinese Housing Form around Mt. Changbaek in China, Journal of the Korean Institute of Rural Architecture, Vol.2, No.1, 2000

11.Kim, Sung-Woo, Lee, Won-Seok, Kim, June-Bong, The Types and Characteristics of Manchurian Houses in Liaoning-Province, China, Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea, Vol.17, No.5, 2001

12. Kim Sung-Woo, Lee Won-Seok, The study on comparing northern and southern folk housing in northeast China with ㅁ-shaped folk housing, Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea, 2000

13. Kang Myeong-Sang, "Chinese unique tradition", Eulyumunwhasa, 1995

14. Wang, Ji-Ryuk, “the architecture of Chinese traditional folk housing", Sandong Science Publishing, 1989

15.  Kim, Jung-Bong, The Characteristics of the House Plan Types of Korean Chinese in North-East China, Ph.D Thesis, Chungbuk National University, 2000, pp.18-23
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