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구들  |  김준봉  |  사진  |    |  閲?sop=and  |  â€¦Ã¬Â  2017년 12월 18일 월요일
논문투고Presentation Paper论文投稿 > 중문논문/中文论文
   
  A Study on the changes of Gudle(Ondol, kang, dile, dinuan) based on the transformation of Korean residential building plan.
  글쓴이 : 최고관리자     날짜 : 09-05-04 09:01     조회 : 47198    

A Study on the changes of Gudle(Ondol, kang, dile, dinuan)  based on the transformation of Korean residential building plan.
- Focusing on the reciprocal relationship between influx of building type and Korean residential culture -
Kim, Junebong , Kang, Inho 
Abstract
Ondol, Gudle, is a traditional radiant floor heating system in Korea. After new building type, apartment was introduced from western world around 1960, there have been dynamic changes in heating system in apartment. At first, designers supposed that apartment should match to the stand-up-living-style and the radiator system regardless traditional life style. Dwellers, however, didn't accept such a heating system even though the increase of the use of standing type furnitures such as bed, sofa, table, sink etc. Nowadays, Ondol is facilitated to the entire of the home even to the living room and dining/kitchen which radiator system was supposed to be accepted by designers. This try and error process shows that heating system is not only the physical facility itself, but also the cultural element reflecting the properties of way of life. And also it proves that one culture can not substitute the other culture, but merely conflict, mediated each other.
Keyword: traditional heating system, Gudle, ondol( kang, dinuan)
概 述
火炕是韩国传统的取暖方式。自从1960年代, 由公寓的急速发展, 公寓的取暖方式产生了许多。 起初设计者们想到公寓是西欧式居住形式,而且是以入住为前提所以跟传统的生活样式无关而采用了暖气。虽然出现了沙发,床,台式饭桌等许多一般生活上很方便的东西,但还是很多人不愿意接受没有火炕。尤其是入住生活倾向很强的卧室或厨房更不愿意抛弃火炕。 结果到现在韩国的许多人都采用炕。这样错误的想法中我们可以知道取暖方式不仅是住宅的物理设施而且更是一种文化。还有我们可以看到一种文化不能代替另一种文化,只是当两者相遇的时候互相调节产生新的发展方向罢了。

1. Introduction - Gudle(Ondol), A unique culture of the Korea Peninsular
Definition of Ondol or Gudle
The definition of 'Gudle' in the dictionary is 'a heating installment that heats the floor through a hole in it.' or 'a heating installment with a stone slab covering the flues in a hypocaust covered with mud.' This definition implies that our traditional heating system was a direct heating system with Gudle flues and Gudle stone slabs. The Ondol has a similar, yet wider definition, simply meaning 'a heating installment that heats the room by heating the floor beneath it with the heat of a fire.'
 The earliest written document using the expression 'Ondol' is the 'Josan Dynasty Records', dating 1424(8th year of the reign of King Sejong). The traditional paper covered floors, which best fit the Ondol, became widespread during this era. Gudle came from 'goo-un dol' which means 'roasted stone' in Korean. However, Ondol, which is the Korean pronunciation of the Chinese Characters meaning 'emit' and 'warmth' combined, instead of 'hot stone' indicates that traditional Korean heating doesn't stop at heating the floor (stone) but radiant heating as well. This also indicates that this expression for radiant floor heating system meant heat storage as well.
       
In a nutshell, 'Ondol' and 'Gudle' started off with the pretty much the same meaning, only Gudul was more specific. Its definition of a heated stone floor would now indicate old-fashioned, traditionally built Korean houses, whereas the expression 'Ondol' which has a much broader definition can be applied to modern day floor heating systems as well. Therefore it would be appropriate to use the expression 'Gudle' only for traditional Korean houses and 'Ondol' for those as well as contemporary houses.
Ondol and Gudle are stated clearly as a proper noun in Britannica dictionary but currently hypocaust is used more often. While we couldn't inherit and develop own traditional heating system, the substitution of terms were happened unconsciously. The very primitive heating system of ancient Rome, which was temporarily used only for public bath can not be compared to our glorious tradition of Gudle because hypocaust has very simple structure of pipes using hot water aqueduct for heating and can't be operated as a regenerative heating system. 
In the Korean language, there is a term, 'dulo-nupda(lie down)'. This expression is the combination of 'dulo(enter)' and 'nupda(lie down or sit down)', which explains the Gudle culture and 'iro-nada' can be understood in the same context. It means 'iro(stand up)' and 'nada(get out)' at the same time. At the time of primitive cavemen, the ceiling height of cave was quite low and whenever they stood up, they had to get out.
From these kind of everyday expression, it is easy to infer that our ancestor always is very comfortable with sitting culture and the discovery and development of Gudle-the floor heating system-is indispensible to our ancestor. That's why Korean culture use more hand that feet or other body part. As you know, Korean traditional dance used more hands, compared to those of the standing culture of other country. Feet are inclined to less used because we are based on sitting-culture.
The uniqueness of Korean culture can be explained by the culture of using fire and culture of Gudle. In the daytime, our ancestor had no problem of getting heat from the Sun but had trouble to get heat at night, so made fireplace to get body warm is the starting point for Gudle invention. While developing the Gudle system, they found efficient way to store more heat with thick stones. At first, they wrap around the heated thick stone while they're sleeping and as time goes by, they gather around the fireplace for cooking and sleeping. The invention of the Gudle can be explained this way. Also in primitive times Korea is composed of lots of windy mountains, tree are easily have fractions and developed fire. This is the perfect condition to get random fire resources. Even the volcanic activity is the good resources to get fire. When they get the small fire resource, they try to transform small fire resource to well-sized fireplace. The problem was strong wind to blow the fireplace away, so our ancestor developed stone wall system to prevent wind to extinguish the precious fireplace. With these stones which make their body warm as a regenerative system, they could survive without death from cold.
The Gudle culture make our ancestor came out of primitive cave and construct a mug hut and frame hut, and develop into Cho-ga house. From this Cho-ga house, our ancestor have devised Gi-wa house, which is the most scientific ancient residential type and most pleasant to live. Within these house, Gudle remained just like the archetype of fireplace to get more convenient heat resources. From the primitive times, our unique culture of food, clothing and housing was based on our close family system, which was came from the living pattern of Gudle culture. This culture is still inherited and makes our racial spirit more distinctive. 
  'Chinese Ondol'
The Chinese usually do not use the expression 'Ondol' and call their traditional Gudle style heating installments 'Kang'(dry) or 'Huo kang'(dry, fire). Nowadays they heat their floors using heating systems that make use of warm water pipes or electricity which they call 'Di le' (hot ground) or 'Di nuan'(warm ground). If we are to tell the world that we are the suzerain state of hypocausts and to tell the world of the superiority of  them, we should encourage the use of the expression of 'Ondol'.

For that purpose, it would be better to use the expression 'Ondol', which is already familiar to foreigners and already in the Encyclopedia Britannica, rather than to sticking to Gudlel. Dictionaries usually put Ondol as ‘Korean hypocaust’. However, hypocaust were only primitive floor heating systems that the Romans used briefly to heat bath floors with hot water channeled through canals. They were not as nearly sophisticated as the Ondol which received direct heat from the fire and which heat could be stored and used for cooking as well. It would be a shame to put the Gudle, a brilliant part of Korean cultural and historical heritage in the same light as such a simple device. The expressions of 'Ondol' and 'Gudle' should be used instead, and written in the Chinese Characters meaning 'Emit heat' in China respectively.

2. The influx and arbitration of the culture
When specific culture is flowed in and enters different culture area, it is hardly for influx culture to substitute existing culture. Two cultures are referred to each other and finally transformed, or new culture is simply adapted to the existing one. In this case, it could be a result between cultural conflict and cultural synergy. Usually new culture is generated that is not biased to any of two original cultures. In case of Korea, Japanese colonization between 1910 and 1945 let Japanese and Western culture, which is quite distorted by Japanese, inflow at this time. Before this period, Western culture was introduced by the group of the missionary. Lastly after the Korean War, Korea was governed by the U.S. military. At this time, western culture that is solely concentrated to America was came to Korea and this time had very short and strong impact to the Korean culture.
In this kind of cases, building types are also imported simultaneously. For example, in Japanese colonization period many of Japanese style houses were built in Korea and after Korean War, Many of western style houses were built. So in Korea during the modernization, Japanese style, American style and traditional Korean style were mixed and influenced each other at the same time. Keeping in mind hat residential housing is more tend to base on the cultural soil than any other building types, Korea suffered through strong influence by other cultures within such a short time like described above and many cultural conflicts were generated during this period.
Residential types can not be regarded as a combination of the mere composition of space, order and material, we should put the distinctiveness of the life style in mind at the same time. Furthermore, the culture of food, clothing and housing remains more relatively concrete compared to other part of the culture. The most fragile part of the culture is clothing. In case of Korea, we seldom wear traditional Korean clothing anymore in everyday life, it is regarded only for special occasions. The same phenomenon was happened to Japanese traditional clothing, Kimono. But in these days some of us used to wear new style of 'Han-Bok (traditional style clothing)', which is totally different than original Han-Bok and western style clothing. But most Korean people wear western suits in everyday life and so does Chinese and Japanese. The most reluctant to change among food, clothing and housing is food. Even though all the western style food was flooded to Korean market, people are reluctant to change their eating style, that is, we still love traditional foods, such as Kimchi, Gochujang and Doinjang-Chije. In major cities of foreign countries, it is easily witnessed Korean grocery store or restaurant. Even in hamburger category, we have Kimchi or Bulgogi burger. I would say that housing is the moderate to change among three components of the culture. Even though we changed our life style to standing culture, suing sofa and bed, we still take off shoes to enter the house and remains the same while staying at the house. In case of Japan, it is easily seen that one of room is designed as a traditional Tadami style in independent house or even in apartment. As you can see above, housing culture is inclined to stayed in the middle when two different cultures are mixed.
Ondol is the most promising example of cultural compound. In the trial and error of constructing Ondol in western style housing, you can clearly notice that he conflict between old and new life style. When two different architectural types were met, we should examine not only physical factors but also life style in residential culture during the adjustment through the cultural conflicts. Ondol is not just the heating system and should be regarded as one of the component for our profound residential culture.
The History and Culture of the Korean Ondol (Gudle)
The creation of the Ondol is related with the appearance of fire. This can be confirmed in ancient documents. Ondol seems to have appeared after the discovery of fire in the Paleolithic age. It is believed to have first appeared in Manchuria and the north of the Korean peninsula. The Ondol culture developed and flourished in this region since then.

The first Ondol to be found on the Korean peninsula was found in a Neolithic Period dugout's fireplace near the Duman river dating somewhere between four thousand and five thousand B.C. Out of the five fireplaces, the outer two were surrounded with pebbles from the stream while the three in the middle only had gravel at the bottom. We can infer from this that the people made fires on the outer sides and sat in the middle between the fires. The fires lightened and heated the houses and were used in cooking.  The sophistication of the Gudles in the wall paintings of Goguryo and the ones in the Balhae palace ruins indicate that Gudles must have taken root in people's lives much earlier. Assuming from the fact that it took many centuries for the present day Gudle to develop from its form when it was first documented, it would have taken a great deal of time for the Gudle to develop. Therefore it is reasonable to assume that the Gudle had been invented with the discovery of fire.

By the Bronze age, farming and settlement became the norm and the fire place's roles of cooking and heating had become divided, and separate fireplaces were made as a result. A separate fireplace was made in the corner of the house, with a primitive chimney to let out the smoke. This fireplace developed into a Gudle made up of two long sides that meet to make a right angle. There is one in Nonam-li, Pyeong-ahn book-do. The width of the east side is 30cm, with a depth of 30cm. The side reaching north and south has a chimney.  This sort of Gudle that heats only parts of the room, is shown in a fourth century (B.C 37~668) mural of a Goguryo tomb. In tomb of woman no.3, there is a picture of a kitchen with kitchen range for cooking and another separate furnace for heating. In those days Gudles heating only parts of the room were the norm. The 'On-gudle'(a Gudle that covers the whole room) that makes sitting and laying possible in any part of the room, became widespread in the middle ages (the mid-Koryo era) and it was not until the early Josun dynasty (late fifteen hundreds to early sixteen hundreds) that they spread south of the Korean peninsula.

The first written records referring to the Gudle is in the 'Goodang-seo in the mid seventh century. It says in the Goodang-sao(The History of Old Tang Dynasty) 'In the winter they make long Gudles and make a fire to heat the room.' The Chinese refer to this Gudle as 'Jang Kang', meaning long Kang. At the time the Chinese looked upon the installments as curiosities. If you visit a home in north eastern China, you would find their type of Ondol Kang, and the peasants there would tell you that they came from Korea.

The Ondol of the ethnic Koreans there have only two versions, the 'Jjoke Gudle'(corner or side Gudle) at the window side of the room or the 'Ban-Gudle' or 'half Gudle' which covers half of the room and do not have the On-Gudle that covers the whole room like that of the Koreans. That is because the Chinese do not take off their shoes and sit in the room as the Koreans do and sit on chairs. Due to this kind of sitting culture, the Ondol did not develop any more and stayed as Ondols that heat only parts of the room. Western style heating only heated the air, so westerners had to make chairs and beds to keep the body away from the cold floors, which was rather unstable compared to sitting on the floor. Besides, their stoves and pechkas could only give off warmth at one side.

However in Korea, the Ondol steadily developed. The Ondols of palaces and peasant houses alike were wonderful scientific inventions. Thousands of years ago the Koreans had invented the Ondol, which shows that they had an amazing understanding of physics and a great understanding of the mechanics of fluids.

The cultural value of the Gudle
In this way this unique culture of heating and the Gudle is peculiar to Korean culture. The Gudle, which storesheat in stone, came after open fires that merely heated one side of the body and was not suitable for sitting or lying in the place where the fire was made to keep the body warm at night when the sun came down. 

The Gudle civilization made it possible for primitive men living in caves to live in dugouts and log cabins on the ground. Later on, traditional houses developed from the thatched abodes to ones with tiled roofs, but kept the Gudle tradition. In this manner, fire and the Gudle have been closely linked to the Korean people since ancient times, and have molded its family structure and way of living.

The Korean people were born and raised on the warm side of the Ondol (warm stone) floor, which is called the Ahraen-mok and died after being treated there when they were old and sick. Even after death, the descendants of the dead practice ancestor worship rites there. Padding blankets were always laid out on the Ahraen-mok to store the heat to keep the place toasty warm, and guests and household members coming from outdoors were urged to sit there to warm themselves, and meals spread out for members of the household that have missed their meals were kept warm under the blankets.

Handloom weaving, sewing, fulling cloth and preparing food for cooking was done on the warm side of the Ondol floor, making it the seat of the lady of the house. It is the place of the lady of the house who is in charge of the safekeeping of the life styles and the manners and decorum of the household. In the houses of old in Yabian, people lived on the Gudle, doing practically everything there. It is the same with house in latter-day Korea. Beds and desks and chairs have taken hold, but sitting on the floor during meals is still considered more comfortable.

Koreans sit on the floor cross legged. This is the same posture in which American Indians sit. The Chinese sit in chairs and the Japanese kneel on the dadami. The Koreans' bodies get the most contact with the floor when sitting on it. This posture gets more parts of the body in touch with the warm floor than any other position. The unique way in which Koreans sit is influenced from the Gudle culture.

The pleasance of the warmth of the Gudle is the one that can not be found in other forms of heating. Koreans save heat with the sleeping pads they sleep on, and the heat in the sleeping pads are spread over the back, waist, legs and other parts of the body, heating them directly. This helps blood circulation. Blankets are heated from the warmth of the Gudle, warming the chest, stomach, knees, feet and other parts of the body that do not get direct contact with the floor, promoting blood circulation during sleep. The Korean people have conducted fire's nature to go upwards and made the heat go upward from beneath the floor. In conclusion, Koreans stand on, sit on and lay and sleep on fire.

3. The influx of western style housing and residential type
sitting-style living, standing-style living and the composition of housing
    Korea has the tradition of sitting-style living. In Asia culture, Korea and Japan are the only two countries which has sitting life-style. Compared to Chinese Kang, Ondol is heating system for whole room and this could be one of the reasons for sitting-style culture. In standing-style living, it is more than enough to have a heat only around bedroom area but in sitting-style living whole room should be heated because ancestor used every corner of room while they're sitting. From this facts, we can assume in reversal way that Ondol is not good heating system because we're already adapted to standing-style living already.
Actually there are lots of trial and error during the modernization period of 1960's to adapt Ondol to the influx western style apartment. It was quite confused at that time and still is because these basic assumptions are conflicted to each other. But through the  deep insight and research, it is merely conceptual confusion in the design phase and hardly regarded as a confusion from the actual living situation. So we should look upon the relationship among the early influx of western style apartment, Ondol, and the architects who had western style design education.

The influx of western-style housing and early recognition for sitting-style living
During the modernization of 1960, it is often regarded the sitting-style living is old-fashioned and unreasonable and the standing-style living is preferred just because it's modern and new life style. Not much consideration was involved to find the actual differences. From the quotation below, we can understand how people think about sitting-style living in 1960's for new apartment construction.
 
figure 1. Mapo Apartment (1962)
As a head in charge of construction and residential units production, I am very glad to see this new grandeur and modern apartment construction. The spirit of the 5.16 revolution is solely for Korean people to have better life than before......(omission)......We all know that our style of living so far is quite unreasonable and inefficient. We do need a life style revolution......(omission)......this new apartment with modern facilities will bring us the life style we need......(omission)......this residential complex will affect the Korean economy , saving construction time and cost......(omission)......the crisis of residential unit production and concentration of the population to the Capital city......(omission)......it is true calling from our age to construct the paradise of residents and will be the emblem of revolutional Korea.......(20 year history of KNHC: Korea National Housing Corporation)

In the ground-breaking ceremony for Mapo apartment complex, President Park, Junghee gave congratulatory address. He mentioned that traditional sitting-style living is very out of date, unreasonable, and should be dropped as soon as possible.
Considering this address includes political intention right after revolution, this kind of point of view was prevailed in the government after 5.16 military revolution and succeeded residential planning is not far from this. We is easily understood from the quotation below.

"The design of plan for Mapo apartment was innovative. it gives us the turning point from unreasonable sitting-style living to new standing-style living. Except rooms, bathroom, kitchen, stairways are all finished with new style stucco......(20 year history of KNHC: Korea National Housing Corporation, Page 360) "

After Mapo apartment development, Korea National Housing Corporation described the next huge residential apartment complex construction like below.

"The design of plan for Han-river apartment was quite innovative in several ways. first, it is boldly design to adopt standing-style living. Its central heating system is the key factor to come up with this kind of design......(omission)......there are no Ondol system in this apartment......(omission)......it is now regarded too early to adapt and especially for the old generation.....(20 year history of KNHC: Korea National Housing Corporation, Page 369)"

As we examine closely description above, we can easily notice that the assumption of new modern living is the transformation from sitting-style living to standing-style living.
At that time the equation like "apartment = western style building = standing-style living = modern life style = what we looking for" is always based on the government policy and people's general consensus. That is to say, the concept of substitution was prevailed at that time and substitution is equally understood as a development or advancement. There are no consideration of how to integrate with traditional style to new western style, which means no careful exploration for living style. It is very dangerous, and even impossible assumption that we could replace our living pattern with new and artificial one. The worst part is that government regard this as a part of revolution process. 
Is it possible to change our mode of living artificially at once?
Or can we fundamentally set the priority for our mode or culture of living ? 
When new culture is blended in, is it possible to substitute old culture totally?

4. The adaptation process of Ondol system
The elimination of Ondol from apartment
Based on the assumption that new standing-style living and Ondol can't be mixed as described above, early apartment was constructed without Ondol system. Radiator was installed instead of Ondol.
Two apartments above were constructed without Ondol system and rooms with the floor was heated by steam radiator. From the standard of today, it is quite hard to understand the policy adoption for standing-style living and even impossible way for construct the apartment today.
This kind of approach was soon vanished because even though apartment was the building type from the western world and for the standing-style living, it had to be adapted to our life style. The most important part of this change is that these kind of need was from the people who actually plan to live in apartment. That is, the steam radiator was not used anymore due to the reluctance of the people. In case of Ondol, we can see early trial and error, adaptation to the actual life style and finally fit into the system.

Figure 2. Mapo Apartment

Figure 3. Han-river Apartment

The adaptation of Ondol, limited to the bedroom
Ondol system was co-existed with radiator system till the end of 1960's and finally won the battle to be selected for an standard in apartment construction. Let's take a close look on the two articles below.
Mapo apartment in Dowha dong, Mapo gu is the first successful example of apartment complex. From the playground to barber shop......(omission)......steam radiator was really inconvenient for our life style......"
(Kyunghyang Newspaper, January 29, 1967)

In 1965, Korea National Housing Corporation constructed three apartment complexes, 131 units in Dongdaemoon apartment complex, 81 units in Hongje apartment complex, and 90 units in Donam apartment complex......(omission)......The distinctive part of these complexes are 1. Ondol room, kitchen & bathroom are minimized as much as possible......(omission)......4. floor or multi-use room was designed from the start of design........(20 year history of KNHC: Korea National Housing Corporation)

From these two articles we can clearly see the gap between government and actual buyer or resident, and if government couldn't meet up their expectation, it is very hard to be accepted by the people. Between 1969 and 1970, Han-river apartment was constructed without Ondol system and till the end of 1960, the debate was continuously made to select Ondol or radiator system. It is the time of confusion and when Korea enter the 1970's, Ondol heating system was standardized in the apartment construction.

The interpretation of life style in living room and Ondol heating system
  The conflict between Ondol and radiator heating system was solved when apartment was constructed in large quantities in early 70's and Ondol was decided to the general solution. When the private sectors of the construction industry was launched the apartment construction in mid 70's, Ondol had finalized for the solution of the heating system whether building used fossil based fuel or not.

Yet Ondol heating system had a hard time when they were applied other areas in residential unit except bedroom. In 1970, private construction company were all planned Ondol for the bedroom but they usually used radiator for living room and dining room3).

Compared to the bedroom area, Ondol adaptation for the living room and dining room was postponed just because of the different concept of living room in Korea. It is often explained that living room is regarded as a standing-style culture space, so radiator was installed instead of Ondol. Between 1970 and 1980, wall mounted furniture was very popular and it explains why radiator was used for heating in this area. On top of that, wood was usually used for flooring material and it was a serious constraint to adapt Ondol heating system for living room area. As we can see, people used to have mixed concept between traditional maru floor and western living room for an apartment living room.

Two examples below were apartment, constructed in 1970's and adapted Ondol only for bedroom and other areas were radiator heating system. Even though early apartment design with the notion of standing-style living was failed to meet up people's expectation, construction company keep their design with radiator in living room till the mid 1980's.
Figure 4 Hangang Samik Chungtop Apartment (1976)
 
Figure 4 New Banpo Daerim Apartment (1979)

The adaptation of Ondol for living and dining room
After mid 1980's apartment in Korea fully adopt Ondol system not only for the bedroom but living room and other areas.4). At that time, Ondol is accepted general solution for the apartment heating. This change was not a dramatic one but slow and steady one. So the complains from the actual residents were accumulated enough to change the heating system. It was very cold in living room with radiator system.

The ration of using bed and sofa was quite increased and sink was used in almost every kitchen of the apartment. At least all the furniture system in apartment were changed to standing-style living but on the contrary heating system was adapted to Ondol. In the early phase of apartment development, planners urged that Ondol and standing-style living couldn't be mixed but actual residents refused to use radiator for the heating system and insist on using Ondol as a convenient and efficient heating system while the mode of living was changed very fast. During this process of change, to accept the western mode of living was an issue but naturally adapted only good part of it and adapt Ondol for heating system.

5. Current status of the development of floor heating system in foreign countries
1) Germany
In Germany, there are intensive interest in floor heating system and they are trying to relate this heating system to energy saving and environment conservation. For example, if someone is intended to install floor heating system, government give financial benefits and technical helps. On top of that, since they don't have any prejudice that floor should be design for only in summer, they developed floor system for winter and divided the world market with Japan. Korea, the original successor of original Ondol, had to import good quality floor and China keep on narrowing gaps between us.
In advanced countries in Europe, they started with electronic defrost process for farms and orchids and invented floor heating systems for the poultry in the farm. They never thought of applying these technology to the residential units but currently floor heating system is used in diverse way in residential units.

2) United States
In america, they have patented the floor heating system with hot air through steel pipes. It s quite hilarious that those primitive Ondol could be a invention in U.S. The history of Korean immigration is more than 40 years and the population of Korean in U.S. is more than one million, so if they started to use Ondol as their primary heating system, U.S. market will be the major one for Korea.
On top of that, diverse non-residential floor heating system was utilized in several field, such as highway defrost and a runway in airport, etc. Even in Korea, we used these non-residential technology for bridge, curved-road in mountain area. Electronic floor heating system is widely accepted in U.S.

3) Japan
In Japan, they never used floor heating system in their history, instead they insist to use small fireplace because Japan is quite humid in summer. That is why tadami system was well developed in Japan. In these days, they invented electronic floor heating system for residential units and take over almost all of the world's floor heating system market. They can be parallel to the Germay in terms of sales and technologies. They keep on trying to get into Korean market. It is quite gloomy to say that all the expensive floor heating system available in Korea are made in Japan or Germany.

4) China
As a late starter, China started to manufacture artificial floor system and general flooring material with low labor cost . But it can be enough threatening to Korea. Even in electronic floor heating system, they started to introduce their new products in the market.

6. Conclusion - The most Korean one is the most globalized one
From our ancestor, Arae-mok is very closely related to the life of Korean since we came to the world, grew up, took a bow at Cha-re in new year celebration, and finally ended our life at Arae-mok. As you can see most of the household works such needling and ironing take place in Arae-mok, it is truly a place for our mother who take care of all manners of the children, food, clothing, shelter and most of all safety of all the family members. In Yanbian, China people just live their lives as described above. Furthermore, this principles can be applied to the contemporary house in today. Even though we are using bed and sofa for standing-style living, we still prefer stiing-style living for an dining table as our choice.

Korean traditional housing, Ham-ok, can protect Gudul and Gudul can keep the resident warm. It is very harmonious relationship to each other. It also drop the temperature in summer. Mud in Gudul system absorbs the humidity and emit when the room is too dry. Furthermore, Gudul gorae prevents the humidity from the ground in summer and emit when the room is too dry in winter. It is very nature-friendly system and can not be regarded as a random system because it is very scientific. Paper window system, Chanho, is triple wall with sliding system, which ventilate air naturally and prevent rapid temperature change. It is very scientific and sophisticated residential culture.

Western heating system can heat only ceiling area and is very inefficient and unreasonable. If you light the fireplace in the room, it will only affect one side of body. Compared to those system, Gudul has very pleasant feeing of warmness which can not be compared to anything. Our mother didn't need to have very long recovery time from giving birth since kitchen fireplace, Butumak Agungi was always warm while they're doing house chores. The infrared rays from the Agungi and the thermic rays from the yellow mud of Butumak had helped our mother healed their womb naturally.

During the early stage of apartment construction in early 1960's, Ondol was adopted not because of designer's original intention but natural selection of the people who actually lived in apartment. There's no doubt that the apartment is the modern building type and standing-style living is prevail with bed and sofa but Ondol will be used simultaneously in the apartment and never retrograded. It means when two different cultures collide, one can not substitute the other completely. Ondol should be seen as a component of residential culture, not just a heating system. Gudle make Korean survive through the harsh weather and regarded as a root of Korean residential culture. But currently without systematic research and education, Gudle that is the first invention for heating system and very creative and original Korean spirit have faced the obliteration. 
Recently in advanced countries, they are focusing on the new energy development and saving technology. It is no surprise that they are competing to use floor heating system and Germany and Japan have already commercialized their technologies to monopolize global market for floor heating system.
Actually our original floor heating system, Gudle, is inherited only through craftsman clans and there are no established education system and no systematic research results, either. Gudleshould be researched systematically in various fields of medical science, Korean medical science, hygienics to have synergy effect. After that, we should accelerate the commercialization of Gudle not to lose our face as a suzerain country of Gudle, the very creative and original Korean culture.

7. References
1. Park, Kyunghui, 「The way of living of chosun tribe in China, Jipmoon Press」, 1994.
2. Kim june bong 金俊峰, 「中國朝鮮族民居」 , 中國民族出版社, 2008.
3. Kim, Junebong 「A morphological characteristics of traditional chosun tribe housing at Yanbian, China」 , Architecture institute of Korea paper, 2000.7.
4. Kim, sungwoo, .Kim, Junebong, Lee, wonsuk, 「A study on the characteristics of manchurian residential units in China」, Architecture institute of Korea paper, 2001.5.
5. 20 year history of KNHC: Korea National Housing Corporation
7. Kim, Junebong, 「A study on the categorization of the characteristics of plan types of chosun tribe traditional housing」, Ph.D. thesis in Chungbuk University, 2000.
8. Kim, Junebong, paik, sukjong, 「A study on the characteristics of plan types of chosun tribe traditional housing in northeast area of China」, Architecture institute of Korea paper, 2001.
9. Park, Eunjung, 「A transformation and development of chosun tribe's traditional housing at Yanbian, China」, Master thesis at Yonsei University, 1999.8.
10. Kyunghyang Newspaper, 1967.1.29.
11. Lee, Sanghae, 「A comparison between the residential unit of Han tribe and the residential unit of Chosun tribe in Gilrim, China」, Architecture institute of Korea International Symposium, 2001.11.
12. Kim, Seungje, 「A research on the village composition of chosun tribe at Hadong, China」, Architecture institute of Korea paper, 2001.2.
13. Choi, Youngtaek, 「Gudul, the root of Korean culture, Koryo Publication, Co. Ltd.」, 1989
14. Ju, Nam-cheol : 『Traditional Korean Houses』 Iljisa, 1981.
15. Kim, Jun-bong : 『Ondol, the Brilliant Gudle Culture』Cheonghong, 2006.
16. Song, Go-ho : 『Ancient Koren Gudle』 Publishing Dept. of Seoul National University, 2006.
17. Son, Jang-yeol et  : <An Experimental Results of the Transient Temperature Response of a Floor Heating Panel according to Varying Pipe Embeding Depth>, Architectural Institute of Korea, 1990
18. Kim, Seong-wan : <Ondol and the Sense of Warmness of Korean People> Korea House Corporation, 1994.
19. Kim, Nam-eung : <A Study on the Hypercaustum-Form of the Western Ancient Floor-Heating System Hypercaust> Architectural Institute of Korea, 2000.
20. Kim, junebong : <Korean traditional house in China>, Korea cheonghong, 2006
21. kim junebong: < The Etymology, Development and the Future of the Ondol and Gudle >, Journal of Ondol, 2008


   

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