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구들  |  김준봉  |  사진  |    |  閲?sop=and  |  â€¦Ã¬Â  2017년 12월 18일 월요일
논문투고Presentation Paper论文投稿 > 중문논문/中文论文
 
  A Study on the Characteristics of Ondol(Kang, Gudle -- Radiant floor heating System) found in Folk Housing of Several Peoples in North Area, China
  글쓴이 : 운아     날짜 : 10-02-12 21:57     조회 : 23141    

A Study on the Characteristics of Ondol(Kang, Gudle -- Radiant floor heating System) found in Folk Housing of Several Peoples in North  Area, China

Kim, June Bong 

Abstract
This study is for analyzing a house and underfloor heating systems called gudle of Korean Chinese, Manchurian and Chinese that are located in the northeast China, which is north of Korean peninsula. Thus it has the similarity and difference among the form of gudle of each folks. The basic form of gudle in Manchurian area of China differs and falls into four categories: U-shaped kang, L-shaped kang, I-shaped kang and whole gudle(gudle that is composed of the whole place). In case of U-shaped kang, it is a basic form of  Manchurian and designed for protecting cold weather in northeast area. U-shaped kang has a long space that can be heated so that it enables as many as family members to sleep. It has the advantage of making the best use of space. The form of Chinese is I-shaped kang. As Chinese has traditionally lifestyle of chair sitting culture, so it has the form of tonggudle, or a room equipped with gudle unlike yoegudle that a fire was made under a stone like goindoel and is suitable for lifestyle of chair sitting culture. As for the kang of Korean Chinese, it is called gudle and has the largest in width compared with that of Manchurian and Chinese. Also, the height of gudle is much lower than other houses by about 30~40cm because Korean Chinese have been living "floor sitting culture"on gudle, which means the tradition of removing one's shoes before entering and sitting on the floor, while other folks like Manchurian has lifestyle of "chair sitting culture". Therefore the study found out that the folk housing of each tribe in the northeast China has similarity and difference at the same time. In particular, the form and size of gudle(kang) varies depending on the way of life.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Keyword : Ondol(Kang, Gudle), Manchurian, Korean Chinese, Chinese folk housing

1. Introduction
1.1 The scope  and  purpose of study
The northern area of the Korean peninsular is currently divided into Manchuria area that includes Jilin prefecture, the Heilongjiang province and Liaoning province in China and the Maritime Province of Siberia in Russia. But Manchuria and the Maritime Province of Siberia had a same culture before this century. In 1860, both were divided into two different areas after Russia and China signed the Beijing treaty. South Korea and China have also a sovereignty dispute over Kando and Cheonji in Mt. Paekdu. In particular, Manchuria, which is in the northeast China, has a population of 2 million consisting of Korean Chinese as minorities. In addition the native Manchu tribe and the native Chinese have a significant influence on Manchuria.
And one of the important matters is the study on the structure of ondol that is under-floor heating system being necessary for people in cold areas. Therefore the study has identified the similarity and difference among the form of gudle of Korean Chinese, Manchurian and Chinese in the northeast China. And it revealed the difference among folk housing of three peoples in the same area and the reason for the difference. This opens a door to understanding the folk housing in the northeast China. In addition, the study is for the purpose of revealing the folk housing in the northeast China and preparing for a clue for tracing a history of Korean people.


<Figure 1)> Survey area in Liaoning province when doing second field investigation
1.2 The range and method of study
Minorities in China have generally lived either in regions that carry out autonomy or sparsely in Chinese area. Most of the minorities lived together with other ethnic groups so that the culture of folk housing of each tribe tended to mix each other. Looking at Manchurian area in the northeast China, there are many Korean Chinese in Jilin prefecture where there is Korean Chinese autonomous region while Manchurian was rooted in Liaoning province where Chinese and Korean Chinese were immigrated after the nineteenth century. And Chinese, Manchurian, Korean Chinese, Mongolian and other minorities have lived in the Heilongjiang province, which is located in the edge of northeast China. The study examined 200 folk housing of Korean Chinese, 50 of Manchurian and 50 of Chinese. Based on doing fieldwork, the study analyzed the relations among housings by focusing on the structure of layout of ondol, the form of kitchen, tradition of livelihood and detailed way of living. 

 2. A study on background of three peoples : the roots of Korean Chinese, Manchurian and Chinese.
2.1. Korean Chinese
Korean Chinese immigrated into China because they suffered from natural disaster in the mid-nineteenth century and political pressure under the Japanese colonial in the twentieth century. The demographics show that they have mainly lived in Jilin prefecture, the Heilongjiang province and Liaoning province. And Korean Chinese self-ruling area has 850 thousand, which is about 40% of the Korean Chinese population in northeast China. From the seventeenth century to the nineteenth century, there are two kinds of immigration; one is for farming. The other is the escape from Japanese invasion and its plundering. However the Ching dynasty designated the neighborhood of Mt. Paekdu as a sacred area and prevented people from staying and living. This policy kept the number of immigrants relatively small for a while. Entering twentieth century, however, the number of immigrants increased, accounting for over 1 million. Thus they become major minorities in this area. This makes a unique culture of Korean Chinese available in the northeast China unlike Korean peninsular. With this trend it is believed that they have experienced of becoming Chinese culturally and socially.1)
2.2 Manchurian
As being one of Tungus people living in Manchuria, in the northeast China, Manchurian is currently a descendant who remained in Manchuria during the occupation of Ching. The fall of Ching dynasty started to make it difficult to keep the efforts of isolating people culturally and ethically. In the end Manchurian adopted customs and language of Chinese. The current Chinese government regards Manchurian as a separated people who mainly live in Liaoning province, Jilin prefecture, the Heilongjiang province, Hubei, Beijing and Inner Mongolia.2)
2.3 Chinese
Chinese is a tribe that has long consisted of ancient Hwaha tribe and other ethnic groups and then mixed, manly living in the Yellow river and the Yangtze river, densely living in Sichuan, Shandong, Henan, Hebei, Hubei, and Anhui, having a population of about 937 million (1982), accounting for 93.3% of total population in China. Chinese has the largest population and the most developed ethnic group both economically and culturally. They maintain a good relationship with other 50 minorities, keeping economic and cultural transactions with many ethnic groups for over 2,000 years.2)
Many houses of Chinese surprisingly have a  singular form throughout china. Courtyard houses in China is divided into two types, the northern and the southern. In case of northern houses, buildings around a garden are far away. In case of southern houses, one-storied or two storied buildings are connected with each other with a small garden seated in the center of the house. Those two types appear the same courtyard type. Yet it is needed to understand that those houses are different from each other in terms of its structure. However, as for the structure of those two types, they have mostly I-shaped yeogudle without kaejajii or bunumi, which means it is under-floor heating system with its primitive state.

3. Basic type of house in Manchuria based on ethnic groups
3.1 Houses of Korean Chinese in Manchuria
In the structure of houses of Korean Chinese in Liaoning province, jeongji is located in one place and araetbang and utbang are connected with each other so that it is three-kan(room) house(Figure 2).  Jeongji divides a room into a wall and there is a small pathway called jisik at each room. In the structure of houses, there is a difference between Korean Chinese of Jilin prefecture and Korean Chinese of Liaoning province. For example, Korean Chinese has one open space connecting jeongji with ondolbang and jeongji becomes an important space of the house in Jilin prefecture(figure 3) and (figure 4).                                                        <figure 2)> Korean-Chines folk housing in Liaoning

<figure 3)> Korean Chinese Folk housing, in Andohyeon, Jilin prefecture
  <figure 4)> Korean Chinese Folk housing, in Andohyeon, Jilin prefecture
Thus most of housekeeping choirs have been done in jeongji(Figure 6). It is also found in the same house type of yangtongjip located in Hamkyeong-do in Korean peninsula. Contrary to houses of Jilin prefecture, the basic form of houses in Liaoning province is three-room house where jeongji is located in one place and araetbang and utbang are connected with each other(figure 5). Since a wall divides jeongji into a room, so the influence of jeongji is not significant. It is related to houses in Pyeoan-do in Korea. The difference between Korean Chinese houses of Jilin prefecture and those of Liaoning province finds that customs of houses of Korean Chinese, who are emigrated from adjacent areas, keep on.
<figure 5>
Korean Chinese folk housing in Liaoning

<figure 5)> Picuture of 'jeongji' of folk housing in Jilin
Korean Chinese call kang Gudle. As for the form of gudle, gudel is wide and high in depth and height. It is a suitable form of "floor sitting culture". It is found that there is a smaller-sized gudle under the influence of Manchurian and Chinese. Since the size of gudle of Korean Chinese is larger than others, there are three fire holes putting an iron pot but there is one fire hole in general. It is a unique feature in terms of gudle. 
In the house of Korean Chinese, there is a large gudle installed for either araetbang or jeongji being the center of house and adults usually staying. The structure is like <figure 7>. A kitchen tends toward one direction called jeongji, bekete. One of the outstanding features is that they usually live on gudle. For instance, they sit and sleep on gudle<figure 8>. In addition there are many warehouses like 'bukyeong' at the age of Kokuryeo.
조왕간(竈王間)
gudle 가마목 장판
(부스깨)


바당
<figure 7> the sturcture of jeongji of of Korean Chinese
 
<figure 8> Folk housing 'jeongji' Doyeun-si, Jilin prefecture

<figure 9> Korean Chinese folk housing storage
3.2 Manchurian houses
Most houses of Manchurian consist of small-sized one building called jeongbang, or the main living room. which is oriented toward south. Jeongbang consists of a kitchen in the middle flanked by bedrooms with U-shaped kang on each side, making a three bay structure(figure 10). However the current houses have been changed from the basic form into a modified form shown in figure 11 that is originated from Chinese case. Yet it was found that there were much smaller-sized houses consisting of a kitchen and a room called two bay type. Sometimes the structure of three bay type has changed into the houses of Chinese, having a kitchen. Generally gudle of Manchurian has a basic form of connecting rooms with U-shaped kang(figure 12).
<figure 10> Manchurian folk housing in Liaoning province
      <figure 11> Manchurian folk housing in Liaoning province
The form of kang of Manchurian house is U-shape that is one of the distinctive features from houses of other ethnic groups. Since winter is very cold, it is thought that U-shaped kang is designed for maximizing the efficiency of heating and serving as many family members as possible with its large heating size. In details, as for windows, the lower window is fixed and the upper window can be open(figure 13). Therefore windows in the northern direction are closed in winter and are open again in summer. A lattice has a unique pattern of Manchurian.
Folk houses of Manchurian have a mixed form between Chinese and Korean Chinese. They have originally a symmetrical gudle that is U-shaped form. Now most of houses have changed into the form of Chinese. However some of houses have a kitchen located at one-side(figure 14) instead of putting a kitchen in the middle. In this case, it is found at the area where Manchurian lived together with Korean Chinese. Yet the number of those houses is quite a few so that there is more study to be needed to determine whether the changing houses occurs due to inside factors or the influence of housing. 

<figure 13> Windows in Manchurian house
3.3 Chinese houses
The form of Chinese kang is I-shaped. Kang is generally located to the south of a room due to a cold weather. Sometimes it is found that kang is located to the north of a room. Therefore the study found that kang is not limited to a certain location but it depends on the conditions of houses.  Since Chinese has traditionally "chair sitting culture", they have yoegudle suitable for bed. Some gudle are equipped with only on the one side of a wall with I-shaped form for "chair sitting culture".
                                                                                                <figure 14> Manchurian folk housing in Jilin prefecture
The structure of dangok, the main living room, is that there is a cheongdang that is a space both as a kitchen and a living room located in the middle of the structure and rooms are put on both side. Except luxury houses, most folk houses serve cheongdang as a kitchen(figure 15). If the size of house becomes larger, rooms are attached toward east and west. If there is not enough room for family, sangbang buildings are added(figure 16).
The form of garden is as close as square and the length to the north and south is usually longer than the length to the west and east. It is assumed that this is due to the weather in a northern district, which winter lasts long. Both the outer and inner walls of house are masonry of bricks so that it can be suitable for winter.
As for the usage of space, Chinese consider cheongdang to be an important space of house. Normally cheongdang is the central space for family to work and have a meal. It is also the central space for enshrining an ancestral tablet on the northern wall of cheongdang.  In the case of both rooms, a left room is higher than a right room to set a hierarchy in that adults are important in family members. And they are staying at cheongdang.
<figure 15> Wang's house  in Liaoning province
 <figure 16> Housing in Liaoning province

4. Characteristics on gudle of folk houses based on ethnic groups in Manchuria
4.1 The structure of layout of gudle.
When we look at the characteristics on the layout of gudle form between Manchurian and Chinese housing, it is found that both has a kitchen that is located at the center of the house and the right and left of the house become a room. However in the case of Manchurian houses, they have a bigger room located in west than others so that they do not have a symmetric structure like Chinese houses having a symmetric structure based on the center partition. Yet some of Manchurian houses have currently the basic form. Also folk housing of Manchurian tend to change from U-shaped kang to L-shaped kang or I-shaped kang.
 
<figure 17> Basic layout of gudle based on ethnic groups
The layout of Manchurian and Korean Chinese housing completely differs because a kitchen is located in a different direction. For example, in the case of Korean Chinese housing, a kitchen is located in a one-side so that the kitchen provides all heating system. By contrast, in case of Chinese housing, it has separate fire holes that can provide heat to each left and right room (figure 18). So the study on this part is needed to research.
Comparing the layout of Chinese folk housing with that of Korean Chinese, Chinese folk housing has an influence on Korean Chinese one(figure19). Manchurain folk hosing has a structure that the location of a kitchen changes from the end of one place to the center and the size of gudle is smaller(figure 20).
<figure 18> fire holes of Manchurian kitchen
 <figure 19> Changed case of Korean Chinese kang
 <figure 20> Changed case of Manchurian kang
The structure of layout of Mongolian folk housing, which is closely related to that of Chinese and Manchurian is round shape3) and can move easily. As Mongolians live a nomadic life, it is hard to find the connection with housing of other tribes. After 1840, they had some changes in their portable monggopo. The case is shown in <figure 21>4). After those who inhibit on monggopo started to settle down one place, gudle started to be installed. For instance, A indicates that gudle is equipped into round monggopo and a central hearth of monggopo remains in the place. B is a more developed case that a hearth is separated so a kitchen is made separately. It is noticeable that the practice of spreading U-shaped carpet centered on a pillar in monggopo continues to remain like a shape of gudle that takes a U-shaped form. C shows that the original shape of monggopo disappears, consisting of a room and a kitchen, a basic form of housing. It is assumed that Mongolian housing is related with Manchurian one because the structure in plan is similar to two bay housing type of Manchurian house consisting of U-shaped kang and a kitchen.

 
<figure 21> Changing of the layout of gudle at the inside of monggopo after the settlement of Mongolian
4.2 The basic form of gudle based on ethnic groups

<figure 22> The basic form of gudle based on tribes
Gudles in Manchuria have different basic forms, falling into four categories; U-shaped kang, L-shaped kang, I-shaped kang and whole gudle(figure 22). U-shaped kang is the basic form in Manchurian housing, being designed for adapting to a cold weather in Northeast. It has an advantage for maximizing the length of heating area and having as many as family to sleep. So it is an effective method to use a space. U-shaped kang is found in Mongolian hosing after Mongolian has settled down. Thus it shows that Manchurian and Mongolian have a transaction historically and have some similarity.
L-shaped kang is a variant form of Manchurian kang. Even if there are not enough cases for this form, it is thought that L-shaped kang is a transitional form of kang changing from U-shaped kang to I-shaped kang. The side of L-shaped kang is not big enough to live so it is used to arrange a piece of furniture. The traditional custom of enshrining a statue of god and an ancestral tablet on the west still remain. L-shaped kang is made of U-shaped kang without having the side of north.
I-shaped kang is a typical form of Chinese housing, being located in the south where there are many sunshine. As I-shaped kang is closely related to the lifestyle of chair sitting culture, so kang is installed for heating in winter and the rest of space is for furniture or for being able to put on shoes. Most of folk housing have I-shaped kang in Northeast china. It is thought that the spread of I-shaped kang results from housing culture of Chinese and the decrease in population per household.
Contrary to the above described three types of kang, Korean Chinese kang called gudle has the largest among them in size. And the height of gudle is 10cm lower than others because Korean Chinese have "floor sitting culture" on gudle while other peoples have "chair sitting culture". In other words, while Manchurian kang has a suitable height to sit, Korean Chinese gudle has a comfortable height for sitting on. Also there are differences in height of a kitchen. While Korean Chinese kitchen is installed slightly below the ground, others are installed on the ground level. In addition, the form of fire holes differs according to the size of gudle. Korean Chinese has three fire holes in general. It can be possible for people to effectively heat a large room with as many as fire holes. 

4.3 The way of life and method of managing the detail
Table 1 shows the name of rooms of three peoples living in Manchuria. Manchurians call a kitchen chifang . The name of chifang is also used by Chinese. Manchurian adopted Chinese language as Manchurian language. For Korean Chinese has kept its own language, it has a unique name of kitchen. However the name of a passage called 'jisil' shows that Chinese language has an influence on Korean Chinese when it comes to a space which was not originally in Korean housing.
<table 1> Name of rooms based on ethnic groups
  Kitchen room ondol attached building other facilities
manchurian chifang seook
dongok
naeji 卍-shaped kang
naeji sangbang storage
pomiru
Korean Chinese bueuk
jeongji
begete large gudle
small gudle
utbang
areatang gudle platform: tobang
passage: jisil
Chinese chifang
dangok east bay
west bay kang sangbang
Manchurian has a tradition of valuing a western room. In this respect, it is common that a senior in the family member lives in a western room. And this room is called 'sangok'. This tradition of Manchurian is similar to that of Mongolian. For example, monggopo has seook where adults live there. Mongolian has two-roomed structure like Manchurian when they settle down. It means Manchurian has an impact on Mongolian housing. Chinese has a central room called dangok where a senior adult lives. Meanwhile Korean Chinese regards areatbang, or a large gudle next to jeongji as a room for a senior family member. Looking at the hierarchy, Manchurian considers a western room as an important one. As for Chinese housing, the structure is based on a space for performing ancestral rites located in the middle of the house. Contrary to other ethnic groups, Korean Chinese put a high priority over Ondol that is a warm room. In conclusion, both Chinese and Korean Chinese value the center of the house. Manchurian values a western direction and Chinese values dangok not a room and Korean Chinese values a room. In case of Korean Chinese housing, the hierarchy of space is determined by the convenience of senior family member's activity.
The location of a kitchen is closely related to a living style. Looking at rare examples of Manchurian and most of Korean Chinese examples, it is found that a kitchen is installed in one side. In case of Korean Chinese kitchen, it is installed lower than the ground level and gudle is arranged side by side so that it has an effective heating system. However it is rarely found that a kitchen is located in one side in Manchurian housing. And they have a small fire hole. By contrast, most of kitchens of Manchurian and Chinese lie in the center. However it is noticeable that Chinese housing has a space for enshrining an ancestral tablet. As for the location of a meal served, while both Manchurian and Korean Chinese have a meal on kang, Chinese usually eat a meal on a central room. In light of the tradition, it is confirmed that Korean Chinese housing has more similarity to Manchurian than Chinese. 

5. Conclusion
The study surveys the characteristics on folk housing of Manchurian, Chinese and Korean Chinese that have large population in the northeast China based on Ondol(kang, gudle).
Gudle in Manchuria has different basic forms, falling into four categories; U-shaped kang, L-shaped kang, I-shaped kang and whole gudle. U-shaped kang is the basic form in Manchurian housing, being designed for adapting to a cold weather in Northeast. It has the advantage of maximizing the length of heating area and having as many as family members for sleeping. Therefore it is an effective method to use a space.
The form of kang of Chinese is I-shaped kang. Kang is generally located to the south of a room due to a cold weather. Sometimes kang is found located to the north of a room. Therefore the study found that kang is not limited to a certain location but it depends on the conditions of houses.
Since Chinese has traditionally "chair sitting culture", they have a form of yoegudle which can suitable for using bed. Some gudles are equipped with only on the one side of a wall with I-shaped form for "chair sitting culture".
Korean Chinese kang called gudle has the largest size among them. And the height of gudle is 30-40 cm lower than others because Korean Chinese have "sitting on gudle" while other peoples "sitting on chair".
Throughout the analysis of housing structure, each ethnic group has similarity and difference at the same time as for the basic form of folk housing in the northeast China. In particular, the form and size differs depending on the way of life.
However Manchurian, Chinese and Korean Chinese have close connection with each other, having a significant influence on each housing culture and develop more delicate form. Therefore as for the structure of folk housing and gudle of three peoples, it will be needed to survey the mutual influence and patterns of change.

Reference

1. Kim, June-Bong, Korean Folk Housing in China, Chunghong, 2005
2. Kim, June-Bong, Rhee, Shin-Ho "Ondol, A Brilliant Culture of Gudle", Chunghong, 2006
3. Kim, Jung-Bong, Kim, Sung-Woo, Park, Eun-Jung, Lee, Hoon, The Characteristics of Korean Folk Housing in Yenbien, China, Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea, Vol.16, No.7, 2000
4. Kim, Si-Jun, Culture and History of Korean Peninsula and Three Provinces in Northeast China, Seoul National University Press, 1999
6. Kim, Jung-Bong, The Characteristics of the House Plan Types of Korean Chinese in North-East China, Ph.D Thesis, Chungbuk National University, 2000
7. Kim, Byung Ho, China's Ethnic Problem and Korean Chinese, Hansunghakkobang, 1997
8. Lim, Gye Soon, History of Ching Dynasty Ruled by Manchurians, Shinsiwon, 2000
9. Kim, June-Bong, Baek, Suk-Jong, The Regional Characteristics of the House Plan Types of Korean Chinese in North-East China, Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea, Vol.17, No.2, 2001
10. Kim, Junebong, A Survey on the Characteristics of Korean Chinese Housing Form around Mt. Changbaek in China, Journal of the Korean Institute of Rural Architecture, Vol.2, No.1, 2000
11. Kim, Sung-Woo, Lee, Won-Seok, Kim, June-Bong, The Types and Characteristics of Manchurian Houses in Liaoning-Province, China, Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea, Vol.17, No.5, 2001
12. Kim Sung-Woo, Lee Won-Seok, The study on comparing northern and southern folk housing in northeast China with ㅁ-shaped folk housing, Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea, 2000
13. Kang Myeong-Sang, "Chinese unique tradition", Eulyumunwhasa, 1995
14. Wang, Ji-Ryuk, “the architecture of Chinese traditional folk housing", Sandong Science Publishing, 1989
15.  Kim, Jung-Bong, The Characteristics of the House Plan Types of Korean Chinese in North-East China, Ph.D Thesis, Chungbuk National University, 2000, pp.18-23
16.  Refer to Lim, Gye Soon, History of Ching Dynasty Ruled by Manchurians, Shinsiwon, 2000
“Britannica Encyclopedia", Korean Edition, 1999 
17.  Kang Myeong-Sang, "Chinese unique tradition", Eulyumunwhasa, 1995
18.  the example of <figure 21> refers to Wang, Ji-Ryuk, “the architecture of Chinese traditional folk housing", Sandong Science Publishing, 1989. the author estimates the step of the change based on this data.


 

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